Introduction to Psychology

 Introduction to Psychology



The nucleus of neuron contains____________ the chemical that contains the genetic blueprint that directs the development of the neuron.

-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

It provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a particular study.

-Operational Definition

It is a broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain observations.

-Theory

This is resting state of the neuron, when more negative ions are inside and more positive ions are outside the cell membrane.

-Polarized State

Community psychology is concerned with providing accessible care for people with psychological problems. Community-based mental health centers are one means of delivering such services as outreach programs

-True

It is a testable prediction that derives logically from a theory.

-Hypothesis

These are branchlike structures that receive incoming signals from other neurons.

-Dendrites

It is like a fence that surrounds the entire neuron, giving it shape and keeping the cell’s internal fluid inside; it is said to be semi-permeable.

-Cell membrane

These are chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the terminal buttons and involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron.

-Neurotransmitters

Environmentalpsychology explores the effects of physical settings in most major areas of psychology including perception, cognition, learning, and others.

-True

Which of the following topics would a psychologist have the least interest in?

-Weather Patterns

It consists of layer of cells containing fat, encases and insulates most axons. .

-Myelin Sheath

Clinical psychology applies findings in all areas of psychology in the workplace.

-False

Health psychology examines how people become who they are, from conception to death, concentrating on biological and environmental factors.

-False

Which of the following statements is correct?

-Only experimental research allows researchers to determine causality.

Darwin’s theory speculated that certain behaviors or traits that enhance survival are naturally selected

-True

Paul believes that physical attractive people are selfish. He conducts a study to see if he is right. He goes up to five people he thinks are good looking and asks them for spare change. They all turn him down. Paul concludes “Aha! I knew it all along.” The operational definition of selfish in Paul’s study is _______________.

-whether people gave Paul a spare change

The more hours that students work, the less successful they are academically. This is an example of what type of correlation?

-Negative

This is a Greek word which means “the study of.”

-logos

The ancient Greek philosopher who wrote about psyche and first broadly defined the subject matter was

-Aristotle

In an experiment on attitudes, participants are given either positive or negative information about a speaker and then asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the speaker. In this experiment, which is the independent variable?

-The type of information the participant is given

Clinical psychology applies findings in all areas of psychology in the workplace.

-False

Any changeable phenomenon that a scientist studies is called ______________.

-Variable

Forensic psychology applies psychology to the legal system. Forensic psychologists might help with jury selection or provide expert testimonies in trials

-True

Sigmund Freud established the first psychology laboratory in 1879 at the University of Leipzig, in Germany.

-False

These provide support, nutritional benefits, and other functions in the nervous system.

-Glial cells

Gestalt is any object or event that is perceived by our senses.

-False

It is a testable prediction that derives logically from a theory.

-Hypothesis

Health psychology examines how people become who they are, from conception to death, concentrating on biological and environmental factors

-False

These are located at the ends of the axon where neurotransmitters are stored before being released into the synapse.

-Terminal Buttons

Which of the following statements is true?

-Quasi experimental research is not a true experiment because participants are not randomly assigned to different conditions.

Any changeable phenomenon that a scientist studies is called ______________.

-Variable

The circadian rhythm of sleep is a natural rhythm of sleep and waking programmed by a group of brain cells in the hypothalamus called_________________.

-Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

This governs the emotion of fear and aggression

-Amygdala

This refers to respiration, consciousness, sleep, dreaming, facial movements, sensory processes and transmission of neural signal from one part of the brain to another.

-Pons

It serves as a relay station for information coming from our senses to the brain.

-Thalamus

A sleep disorder in which a person stops breathing while asleep.

-Sleep Apnea

Which of the following does mediation appear to improve?

-All of the above

This is responsible for the transfer of information from short to long term memory.

-Hippocampus

____________ is a heightened awareness of the present moment, which can be applied to events in one’s environment and events in one’s own mind.

-Mindfulness

_____________ occurs when someone is either physically or psychologically reliant on a drug’s effect.

-Substance dependence

A sleep disorder in which a person falls asleep during alert times of the day.

-Narcolepsy

____________ produces mild hallucinations as well as physiological arousal and sometimes called the

“love drug” because it produces feelings of euphoria, warmth, and connectedness with others.

-Ecstasy

_____________ includes automatic processing that requires little attention?

-Lower-Level Consciousness

According to Freud, the surface content of a dream, containing dream symbols that disguise the dream’s true meaning

-Manifest Content

This is necessary for balance, muscle tone and performance of motor skills.

-Cerebellum

This regulates heartbeat and respiration and plays a role in sneezing, coughing, vomiting, swallowing and digestion.

-Medulla

This regulates some of our basic emotional reaction.

-Limbic system

t maintains homeostasis in the body or a state of internal equilibrium across a variety of bodily systems

-Hypothalamus

-A condition when individual forgets something because it is so painful or anxiety laden that remembering is intolerable

-Motivated Forgetting

The ____________ is the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected half of the time.

-Absolute Threshold

It refers to a memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events.

-Retrograde Amnesia

It is a long tail-like structure growing out of the other end of the cell which carries signals away from the cell body.

-Axon

Light waves are transduced into neural messages by two types of receptor cells, named rods and cones, in the ____________of the eye.

-retina

Type of attention in which involves concentrating on more than one activity at the same time

-Divided Attention

Cones are concentrated in the ___________.

-Fovea

A type of effortful retrieval that occurs when we are confident that we know something but cannot quite pull it out of memory

-Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

The sound wave is amplified by the hammer, anvil, and stirrup in the _____________.

-Middle ear

This pertains to the memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events.

-Flashbulb Memory

A response is an organism’s reaction to a stimulus.

-True

It is a conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts and events and at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated.

-Explicit memory

t refers to any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience.

-Learning

These reinforces are innate and often satisfy biological needs like food, water, sex, and even artificial sweeteners with no food value

-Primary reinforcers

A preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information

-Schema

Sensory receptors located in the muscles, joints, and skin provide the brain with messages about movement, posture, and orientation of the body. These are called______________receptors.

-Kinesthetic

It refers to the retention of information about the where, when, and what of life’s happenings – that is how individuals remember life’s episodes.

-Episodic memory

This is a Greek word which means “mind.”

-Psyche

This is a special form of episodic memory, consisting of a person’s recollections of his or her life experiences.

-Autobiographical Memory

Russian physiologist who received the Nobel Prize for his work on the role of saliva in digestion.

-Ivan Pavlov

The ____________theory of color vision proposes that there are three kinds of cones in the retina that respond primarily to light in either the red, green, or blue range of wavelengths.

-Trichromatic

These reinforcers are learned by association, usually via classical conditioning like money, grades, and peer approval.

-Secondary reinforcers

It refers to the process of observing and imitating behaviors performed by others.

-Modeling

his coordinates information between the left and right hemispheres of the brain.

-corpus callosum

According to_____________, the amount of the change in a stimulus needed to be detected half the time is in direct proportion to the intensity of the original stimulus.

-Weber’s law

When a stimulus is continuously present or repeated at short intervals, the sensation gradually becomes weaker. This termed__________.

-Sensory adaptation

This occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later. taught earlier.

-Proactive Interference

According to _____________, pitch perception occurs when the brain notices which portions of the basilar membrane are being most excited by incoming sound waves.

-Place Theory

It contains a nucleus

-Cell body

The sound wave is transduced into neural impulses in the ________, which is located in the cochlea in the inner ear.

-Organ of Corti

-This governs high-level processes in the brain such as cognition and language.

-Cerebral cortex

Environmentalpsychology explores the effects of physical settings in most major areas of psychology including perception, cognition, learning, and others. This coordinates information between the left and right hemispheres of the brain.

-corpus callosum

An American psychologist who formulated the “law of effect”.

-Edward Thorndike

refers to all of a person’s overt actions that others directly observe.

-Behavior

A form of learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of its occurrence.

-Operant conditioning

refer to the private thoughts, emotions, feelings and motives that other people cannot directly observe.

-Mental Processes

Identify what is defined through its function. It serves as a relay station for information coming from our senses to the brain

-thalamus

This regulates heartbeat and respiration and plays a role in sneezing, coughing, vomiting, swallowing and digestion.

-medulla

This is necessary for balance, muscle tone and performance of motor skills.

-cerebellum

This coordinates information between the left and right hemispheres of the brain.

-corpus callosum

This regulates some of our basic emotional reaction.

-Limbic System

This is responsible for the transfer of information from short to long term memory.

-hippocampus

This governs high-level processes in the brain such as cognition and language.

-cerebral cortex

It maintains homeostasis in the body or a state of internal equilibrium across a variety of bodily systems.

-hypothalamus

This refers to respiration, consciousness, sleep, dreaming, facial movements, sensory processes and transmission of neural signal from one part of the brain to another.

-pons

This governs the emotion of fear and aggression.

-Amygdala

The ____________ is the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected half of the time.

-Absolute Threshold

When a stimulus is continuously present or repeated at short intervals, the sensation gradually becomes weaker. This termed__________.

-Sensory adaptation

According to_____________, the amount of the change in a stimulus needed to be detected half the time is in direct proportion to the intensity of the original stimulus.

-Weber’s law

Light waves are transduced into neural messages by two types of receptor cells, named rods and cones, in the ____________of the eye.

-retina

Cones are concentrated in the ___________.

-Fovea

The ____________theory of color vision proposes that there are three kinds of cones in the retina that respond primarily to light in either the red, green, or blue range of wavelengths.

-Trichromatic

The sound wave is amplified by the hammer, anvil, and stirrup in the _____________.

-Middle ear

The sound wave is transduced into neural impulses in the ________, which is located in the cochlea in the inner ear

-Organ of Corti

Sensory receptors located in the muscles, joints, and skin provide the brain with messages about movement, posture, and orientation of the body. These are called______________receptors.

-Kinesthetic

According to _____________, pitch perception occurs when the brain notices which portions of the basilar membrane are being most excited by incoming sound waves.

-Place Theory

Objects cast smaller images on the retina when they are more distant. As a result, parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to grow closer together the farther they are from us.

-Linear Perspective

We tend to perceive lines or patterns that follow a smooth contour as being part of a single unit.

-Continuity

It is a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people organize and interpret information.

-Schema

Visual stimuli in which the cues used in visual perception create a false perception.

-Visual Illusions

A part of the inner ear that is characterized as a coiled, fluid-filled tube about 1.4 inches long that resembles a snail. This is where the sound waves are turned into neutral impulses.

-Cochlea

A form of mental training that can be used to calm the mind, stabilize concentration, or enhance awareness of the present moment.

-Meditation

_____________ in depth perception require both eyes to allow us to perceive depth.

-Binocular Cues

Missing sensory information is automatically "filled in" in the process of perception to create complete and whole perceptions.

-Closure

A term in classical conditioning wherein a response is elicited by the conditioned stimulus.The shape of the lens of the eye must change to focus the visual image on the retina from stimuli that are different distances from the eye.

-Accommodation

drugs act on the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perceptions and alter mood.

-psychoactive

When we perceive a visual stimulus, part of what we see is the center of our attention and the rest isthe indistinct ground

-Figure-ground

A type of reinforcement that is learned by association, usually via classical conditioning like money, grades, and peer approval.Things that are close together are usually perceived as belonging together.

-Proximity

It is the tendency for perceptions of objects to remain relatively unchanged in spite of changes in rawsensations.

-Perceptual constancy

This refers to the savory taste of meat stock, cheese, and mushrooms, that some scientists believe is another type of taste bud.

-Umami

The ______________ schedule is where reinforcement always follows the first response after a set amount of time, producing a response pattern in which the rate of response immediately following reinforcement is low.

-Fixed interval

Closer objects tend to be partially in front of, or partially cover up, more distant objects.

-Superposition

A theory of dreaming that rests on the idea that dreams are essentially subconscious cognitive processing.

-Cognitive

Theory of DreamingThis is a state of mind characterized by focused attention, suggestibility, absorption, lack of voluntarycontrol over behavior, and suspension of critical faculties of mind.

-Hypnosis

_____ is a heightened awareness of the present moment, which can be applied to events in one’s environment and events in one’s own mind.

-Mindfulness

According to Freud, this refers to the dream’s hidden content; it unconscious and true meaning.

-Latent Content

Which of the following does mediation appear to improve?

-All of the above

_____________ includes automatic processing that requires little attention?

-Lower-Level Consciousness

_____________ occurs when someone is either physically or psychologically reliant on a drug’s effect.

-Substance dependence

____________ produces mild hallucinations as well as physiological arousal and sometimes called the “love drug” because it produces feelings of euphoria, warmth, and connectedness with others.

-Ecstasy

The circadian rhythm of sleep is a natural rhythm of sleep and waking programmed by a group of brain cells in the hypothalamus called_________________.

-Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

A sleep disorder in which a person stops breathing while asleep.

-Sleep Apnea

A sleep disorder in which a person falls asleep during alert times of the day.

-Narcolepsy

According to Freud, the surface content of a dream, containing dream symbols that disguise the dream’s true meaning

-Manifest Content

Russian physiologist who received the Nobel Prize for his work on the role of saliva in digestion.

-Ivan Pavlov

It refers to any stimulus that decreases the frequency of behavior.

-Punishment

A form of learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of its occurrence.

-Operant conditioning

An American psychologist who formulated the “law of effect”.

-Edward Thorndike

It refers to any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience.

-learning

These reinforces are innate and often satisfy biological needs like food, water, sex, and even artificial sweeteners with no food value

-Primary reinforcers

These reinforcers are learned by association, usually via classical conditioning like money, grades, and peer approval.

-Secondary reinforcers

This reinforcement occurs when the presentation or addition of stimulus to a situation increases the likelihood of a behavior like giving extra credit points for turning in homework on time

-Positive reinforcement

This reinforcement involves the removal of the stimulus to increase behavior.

-Negative reinforcement

It refers to the process of observing and imitating behaviors performed by others.

-Modeling

Type of attention in which involves concentrating on more than one activity at the same time.

-Divided Attention

A type of effortful retrieval that occurs when we are confident that we know something but cannot quite pull it out of memory.

-Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

It refers to the retention of information about the where, when, and what of life’s happenings – that is how individuals remember life’s episodes.

-Episodic memor

It is a conscious recollection of information, such as specific facts and events and at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated.

-Explicit memory

A preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information.

-Schema

This is a special form of episodic memory, consisting of a person’s recollections of his or her life experiences

-Autobiographical Memory

This pertains to the memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events.

-Flashbulb Memory

A condition when individual forgets something because it is so painful or anxiety laden that remembering is intolerable

-Motivated Forgetting

It refers to a memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events.

-Retrograde Amnesia

This occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later. taught earlier

-Proactive Interference

These are substances that create distorted perceptions of reality ranging from mild to extreme.

-Hallucinogens

A psychoactive drug that stimulates the brain by blocking neurotransmitters that slow down our nervous system and cause sleep.

-caffeine

___________ memory is the conscious recollection of information such as specific facts and events and

at least in humans, information that can be verbally communicated.

-declarative

The activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster.

-Priming

___________ is defined as the minimum intensity of a stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time.

-Absolute Threshold

These processes involve changes in an individual’s relationship with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality

-Socioemotional Processes

The ______________ schedule is where reinforcement always follows the first response after a set amount of time, producing a response pattern in which the rate of response immediately following reinforcement is low.

-Fixed interval

Most individuals have progressed to full adult cognition, including the ability to reason using abstract concepts

-Formal Operationa

A part of the inner ear that is characterized as a coiled, fluid-filled tube about 1.4 inches long that resembles a snail. This is where the sound waves are turned into neutral impulses

-Cochlea

Conflicts over dangerous motives or feelings are avoided by unconsciously transforming them into the opposite desire

-Reaction formation

Shirley, a sales representative, uses MapQuest to get driving directions to her client’s office. She is using a(n)_______________to reach her destinations.

-Algorithm

The reproducibility of the test’s result is known as ______________.

-Reliability

Someone who has difficulty exploring more than one possible solution to a problem is demonstrating_____.

-Functional fixedness

If mental age is the same as chrono;ogical age, the individual’s IQ is 100 or _________.

-Average

These are states of cellular or bodily deficiency that compel drives; these are what your body seeks.

-Needs

The body functions best at a specific level of arousal, which varies from one individual to another .

-Optimum Level Theories

These are brief, acute changes in conscious experience and physiology that occur in response to a personally meaningful situation

-Emotion

Theory that views motivated behavior as directed toward the reduction of a physiological need.

- Drive-reduction theory

These are the perceived states of tension that occur when our bodies are deficient in some need and creating an urge to relieve the tension.

-Drives

Deductive reasoning starts at _________and goes to _____________.

-The general; the specific

This refers to any external object or event that motivates behavior.

-Incentives

These pertain to development of one’s potential to the fullest extent.

-Self-actualization needs

This includes food, water and sleep.

-Basic Physiological Needs

A classic research by Yerkes and Dodson which states that we function in accordance to a certain level.

-Optimal Arousal Model

_______ pertains to the ability to grapple with the big questions of human existence, such as meaning of life and death, with special sensitivity to issues of spirituality.

-Existentialist

Categories by which the mind groups things, events, and characteristics are called_____.

-Concepts

An example of concept is __________________.

-A vegetable

This is the urge to move towards one's goals.

-Motivation

Critical thinking involves two mental habits such as _______and ______.

-Mindfulness and open-mindedness

-The common criterion for determining mental retardation is ________.

-an IQ below 70

The needs for affiliation with friends, supportive family, group identification and intimate relationship.

-Belongingness & Love Needs

This theory taks about how an emotional reaction is a result of physiological reactions to stimul

-James-Lange Theory

This involves anything that energizes or directs behavior.

-Motives

The needs for attention and recognition from others, & feelings of achievement, competence, & mastery.

-Esteem Needs

Someone who has difficulty exploring more than one possible solution to a problem is demonstrating_____.

-Functional fixedness

This includes food, water and sleep.

-Basic Physiological Needs

These are the needs for order, predictability, physical security, & freedom from fear.

-Safety Needs

It consists of unconscious drives and is the individual’s reservoir of sexual energy. It works for the pleasure principle.

-Id

The emotional nature of stressful events is lessened at times by reducing it to cold logic

-Intellectualization

It is the most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism. It pushes unacceptable id impulses back into the unconscious mind.

-Repression

He/She is referred to as the father of American personality psychology.

-Gordon Allport

He/She believed that the need for security, not for sex, is the prime motive of human existence.

-Karen Horney

The tendency to worry and experience negative emotions.

-Neuroticism

These are tactics that the ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

-Defense Mechanisms

He/She believed that we are all born with the raw ingredients of a fulfilling life – we simply need the right condition to thrive. Each person is born with natural capacities for growth and fulfillment.

-Carl Rogers

_________ is a method of measuring personality characteristics that directly asks people whether specific items describe their personality traits.

-Objective Test

This is the most primitive defense mechanism, in which the ego simply refuses to acknowledge anxiety- producing realities.

-Denial

_________ emphasizes that personality is primarily unconscious or is beyond awareness, thus enduring patterns that make up personality are largely unavailable to out conscious awareness and they powerfully shape our behaviors.

-Psychodynamic Perspective

According ___________self-actualization is the motivation to develop one’s full potential as human being. A person at this optimal level of existence would be tolerant of others, have a gentle sense of humor, and be likely to pursue the greater good.

-Abraham Maslow

This defense mechanism involves directing unacceptable impulses at a less threatening target.

-Displacement

This is Jung’s name for the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past.

-Collective unconscious

The person expresses an unconscious wish in a socially valued way, such as a boxer who channeled his aggressive drive in the ring.

-Sublimation

_________ is a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts and emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world.

-Personality

this is the Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality. It abides by reality principle as it tries to bring the individual pleasure within the norms of the society.

-Ego

This is the harsh internal judge of our behavior. It is reflected in what we often call conscience and evaluates the morality of our behavior

-Superego

-He/She concluded that archetypes emerge in art, literature, religion and dreams .

-Carl Jung

A factor of personality characterized by being more likely than others to engage in social activities, experience gratitude, strong sense of meaning in life, and are more forgiving.

-Extraversion

The Freudian structure personality that is known as the harsh internal judge of our behavior. It is reflected in what we often call conscience and evaluates the morality of our behavior.

-Superego

These are strategies that comes in different forms such as formulas, instructions, and the testing of possible solutions.

-Algorithms

The model of motivation implies that all organisms are motivated to maintain physiological equilibrium around an optimal set point.

-Drive Reduction Mode

This means thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence.

-Critical Thinking

This stage of human development is when the young child's thought is egocentric or selfcentered, as they can only see things from their perspective

-Early childhood

A normal physical response to events that make you feel threatened or upset your balance in some way. This results from appraisal of demands of a situation as exceeding our ability to cope with or manage those demands.

-Stress

A tool used by Freud in which the patient is encouraged to talk about whatever comes to mind, allowing contents of the unconscious mind to slip past the censorship of the ego.

-Free Association

A defense mechanism that is a special form of displacement in which the person expresses an unconscious wish in a socially valued way.

-Sublimation

This is a basic drive that ensures that we take in sufficient nutrition to survive.

-Hunger

A method developed by Freud in which the symbols of the manifest content of dreams that are recalled by the patient are interpreted to reveal their latent content.

-Dream Interpretation

The Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality.

-Ego

Any form of patient opposition to the process of psychoanalysis.

-Interpretation of Resistance

The phenomenon in psychoanalysis in which the patient comes to feel and act toward the therapist in ways that resemble how he or she feels and acts toward other significant adults.

-Interpretation of Transference

The likeliness over others to engage in social activities, experience gratitude, show strong sense of meaning in life and be more forgiving.

-Extraversion

The release of emotional energy related to unconscious conflicts.

-Catharsis

The perceived states of tension that occur when our bodies are deficient in some need and creating an urge to relieve the tension.

-Drives

s the mental ability of transforming information to reach conclusions.

-Reasoning

In Erik Erikson's Stages of Personality Development, at what age do we acquire our sense of own identity and grow confused about our role in life?

-11-18 years

reasoning starts from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instance.

-Deductive

A biological theory of aging that argues that aging in the body's hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of the disease.

-Hormonal Stress Theory

-This refers to the tendency of members of groups to work less hard when group performance is measured than when individual performance is measured.

-Social Loafing

The following statements except for one are true.

-Obedience is more likely to occur when we are in the presence of other disobedient individual.

behavior interferes with everyday functioning and occasionally can be a risk to oneself or others.

-Dysfunctional

This consists of guidelines provided by every culture for judging acceptable and unacceptable behavior

-Social Norms

It is a branch of psychology that studies individuals as they interact with others.

-Social Psychology

It refers to the phenomenon in psychoanalysis in which the patient comes to feel and act toward the therapist in ways that resemble how he or she feels and acts toward other significant adults.

-Interpretation of transference

The theoretical approach to psychological disorders that attributes psychological disorders to organic and internal causes

- Biological approach

It refers to the effect in which working in a group improves one’s performance on individual projects.

-Social Facilitation

refers to anything people do to deal with or manage stress or emotions

-Coping

A kind of conflict that requires the individual to choose between alternatives that contain both positive and negative consequences.

-Multiple approach-avoidance conflict

behavior leads to real discomfort or anguish, either in the person directly or in others.

-Distressing

means different from the norm or different from what most people do.

-Deviant

This refers to yielding to group pressure to act as everyone else does.

-Conformity

A defense mechanism wherein stress is reduced by returning to an earlier pattern of behavior.

-Regression

When we perceive a visual stimulus, part of what we see is the center of our attention and the rest is the indistinct ground.

-Figure-ground

A type of reinforcement that is learned by association, usually via classical conditioning like money, grades, and peer approval.

-Secondary reinforcers

It is the tendency for perceptions of objects to remain relatively unchanged in spite of changes in raw sensations.

-Perceptual constancy

This refers to the person’s observable characteristics which show the contributions of both nature (genetic heritage) and nurture (environment).

-Phenotypes

Stress is reduced by explaining away the source of stress in ways that sound logical.

-Rationalization

It refers to the pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occurs throughout the course of life, involving both growth and decline.

-Development

This leads to changes in many aspects of our psychological states and process – changes in our emotions, motivations, and cognitions.

-Psychological Reaction

A form of mental training that can be used to calm the mind, stabilize concentration, or enhance awareness of the present moment.

-Meditation

A theory of dreaming that rests on the idea that dreams are essentially subconscious cognitive processing.

-Cognitive Theory of Dreaming

At this stage (2 – 7 years), the child is capable of symbolic thought – however, this thinking is still quite different from that of adults. It is often “illogical” in ways that reveal the unique nature of preoperational cognition

-Preoperational Stage

These processes pertain to changes in individual’s thought, intelligence, and language.

-Cognitive Processes

These processes involve changes in an individual’s biological nature.

-Physical Processe

This requires the individual to choose between alternatives that contain both positive and negative consequences.

-Multiple approach-avoidance conflict

These are substances that create distorted perceptions of reality ranging from mild to extreme.

-Hallucinogens

The type of reaction that pertains to the fact that the body reacts to stress with an alarm reaction, a phase of resistance to the stress, and a stage of exhaustion if coping is not successful.

- Physiological Reactions

A psychoactive drug that stimulates the brain by blocking neurotransmitters that slow down our nervous system and cause sleep.

-Caffeine

The following except for one are the changes during the adolescence period.

-Increase in crystallized intelligence or individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills

This can be thought of as any event that strains or exceeds an individual’s ability to cope.

-Stress

It occurs when a single sperm cell from the male merges with the female’s ovum (egg) to produce a zygote – a single cell with 23 chromosomes from the mother and 23 from the father.

-Conception

Conflict in which an individual must choose between two negative outcomes of approximately equal value.

-Avoidance-avoidance conflict

An eclectic approach integrates or combines several perspectives to provide a more complete picture of behavior.

-True

Community psychology is concerned with providing accessible care for people with psychological problems. Community-based mental health centers are one means of delivering such services as outreach programs.

-True

A theoretical approach to psychological disorders that implies that these are influenced by biological factors such as genes, psychological factors such as childhood experiences and sociocultural factors such as gender.

-Biopsychosocial model

psychology is the field of psychology that uses psychological principles to encourage healthy lifestyles and to minimize the impact of stress

-Health

The tendency for group discussion to make beliefs and attitudes more extreme.

-Polarization

are culturally determined guidelines that tell people what behavior is expected of them

-Social roles

A form of psychotherapy that focuses on the accurate identification and communication of feelings and the improvement of current social relationships

-Interpersonal Psychotherapy

An eclectic approach integrates or combines several perspectives to provide a more complete picture of behavior

-True

Environmental psychology explores the effects of physical settings in most major areas of psychology including perception, cognition, learning, and others.

-True

This is characterized more likely than others to engage in social activities, experience gratitude, strong sense of meaning in life, and are more forgiving.

-Extraversion

means different from the norm or different from what most people do.

-Deviant

A kind of conflict that requires the individual to choose between alternatives that contain both positive and negative consequences.

-Multiple approach-avoidance conflict

This refers to the interpretation of sensation. It is an active process in which perceptions that are created often go beyond the minimal information provided by the senses.

-Perception

He/She believed that we are all born with the raw ingredients of a fulfilling life – we simply need the right condition to thrive. Each person is born with natural capacities for growth and fulfillment.

-Carl Rogers

refers to a method in which faulty cognitions, maladaptive beliefs, expectations and ways of thinking are changed by pointing out their irrationality.

-Cognitive restructuring

Community psychology is concerned with providing accessible care for people with psychological problems. Community-based mental health centers are one means of delivering such services as outreach programs.

True

behavior leads to real discomfort or anguish, either in the person directly or in others

-Distressing

He/She believed that the need for security, not for sex, is the prime motive of human existence

-Karen Horney

The theoretical approach to psychological disorders that attributes psychological disorders to organic and internal causes

-Biological approach

reactions occurs when the body reacts to stress with an alarmed reaction, a phase of resistance to the stress, and a stage of exhaustion if coping is not successful.

-Physiological

A disorder that involves a sudden loss of memory or change of identity.

-Dissociative disorders

This refers to the tendency of members of groups to work less hard when group performance is measured than when individual performance is measured.

-social loafing

He/She concluded that archetypes emerge in art, literature, religion and dreams.

-Carl Jung

Darwin’s theory speculated that certain behaviors or traits that enhance survival are naturally selected.

-True

This is the harsh internal judge of our behavior. It is reflected in what we often call conscience and evaluates the morality of our behavior.

-Superego

This refers to yielding to group pressure to act as everyone else does.

-Conformity

According ___________self-actualization is the motivation to develop one’s full potential as human being. A person at this optimal level of existence would be tolerant of others, have a gentle sense of humor, and be likely to pursue the greater good.

-Abraham Maslow

This is Jung’s name for the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past

-Collective unconscious

A response is an organism's reaction to a stimulus.

-True

He/She is referred to as the father of American personality psychology.

-Gordon Allport

These are tactics that the ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

-Defense Mechanisms

is a form of therapy in which a trained professional uses methods based on psychological theories to help a person with psychological problems.

-Psychotherapy

The tendency to worry and experience negative emotions.

-Neuroticism

A defense mechanism wherein the emotional nature of stressful events is lessened at times by reducing it with the help of logic.

-Intellectualization

It refers to the phenomenon in psychoanalysis in which the patient comes to feel and act toward the therapist in ways that resemble how he or she feels and acts toward other significant adults.

- Interpretation of transference

A defense mechanism wherein stress is reduced by returning to an earlier pattern of behavior.

-Regression A disorder that involves a sudden loss of memory or change of identity.

Erikson’s psychosocial stage when a child Learns to meet the demands imposed by school and home responsibilities; or comes to believe that he or she is inferior to others.

-Industry vs. Inferiority

Conflict in which achieving a positive goal will produce a negative outcome as well.

-Approach-avoidance conflict

Conflict in which the individual must choose between two positive goals of approximately equal value

- Approach-approach conflict

This is the field of psychology that uses psychological principles to encourage healthy lifestyles and to minimize the impact of stress.

-Health Psychology

American Psychologists Martin Seligman and Ed Diener introduced behaviorism.

-False - Positive psychology

Gestalt is any object or event that is perceived by our senses.

-False - Stimulus

Health psychology examines how people become who they are, from conception to death, concentrating on biological and environmental factors.

-False - Developmental

Clinical psychology applies findings in all areas of psychology in the workplace.

-Industrial and Organization