Software Engineering 1

Software Engineering 1

Software engineering is the process of analyzing user needs and designing, constructing, and testing end-user applications that will satisfy these needs through the use of software programming languages. It is the application of engineering principles to software development.




100-200Build & Fix Model is suitable for programming exercises of ___________ LOC (Line of Code).
5 phasesRAD Model has
A project has a unique purpose.Every project should have awell-defined objective. For example, many people hire firms to design and build a new house, but each house, like each person, is unique.
A project is an endeavorResources, such as people and equipment, need to do work.
A project is developed using progressive elaboration or in an iterative fashion.Projects are often defined broadly when they begin, and as time passes, the specific details of the project become clearer.
A project is temporaryA project’s duration might be just one week or it might go on for years, but every project has an end date.
A project requires resources, often from various areasResources include people, hardware, software, or other assets. Many different types of people, skill sets, and resources are needed to build a home.
A project should have a primary customer or sponsorMost projects have many interested parties or stakeholders, but someone must take the primary role of sponsorship.
abstractionimplies that a problem can be simplified by omitting irrelevant details.
abstractionSoftware engineering principle whose main purpose is to consider only those aspects of the problem that are relevant for certain purpose and suppress other aspects that are not relevant for the given purpose
act consistently with the public interest.”Identify the correct statement: “Software engineers shall
AdaptiveThe modification of the software to match changes in the ever changing environment, falls under which category of software maintenance?
Adaptive MaintenanceThis includes modifications and updationsapplied to keep the software product up-to date and tuned to the ever changing world of technology and business environment.
Adhoc testingTesting done without planning and Documentation is called
All are trueWhich of the following statements about SRS is/are true ?
All of the aboveRelease notes show what happened in this software version. Typically the information includes:
All of the mentioned“Software engineers should not use their technical skills to  other people’s computers.”Here the term  refers to:
All of the mentionedProcesses for evolving a software product depend on:
All of the mentionedSelection of a model is based on
All of the mentionedSoftware Maintenance includes
All of the mentionedWhat are the various Testing Levels?
all of the mentionedWhich of the following is/are main parameters that you should use when computing the costs of a software development project?
All of the mentionedWhich of the following is/are White box technique?
All of the mentionedWhich of these is true ?
All of the mentionedWhich one of the following is not an Evolutionary Process Model?
All of theseWhat are the Mandatory Quality Procedures?
AmbiguousWhich of the following property does not correspond to a good Software Requirements Specification (SRS) ?
AnalysisThe
new modules are coded with the help of structureddesign created in the design step.
AppraisalInspections and testing are what kinds of Quality Costs?
Avoiding customer complaintsWhich of the following is not project management goal?
Barry BoehmThe spiral model was originally proposed by
Batch processing systemsThese are business systems that are designed toprocess data in large batches.
be dependent on their colleagues.”Select the incorrect statement: “Software engineers should
Berry BoehmSpiral model was developed by
Beta testingAcceptance testing is also known as
Black box testingBehavioral testing is
Black Box TestingBoundary value analysis belong to?
black-boxThe SRS document is also known as _____________ specification.
Black-box TestingIt is carried out to test functionality of the program and also called ‘Behavioral’ testing.
Both Confidentiality & Intellectual property rightsChoose the correct option in terms of Issues related to professional responsibility
Both RAD & Iterative EnhancementA company is developing an advance version of their current software available in the market, what model approach would they prefer ?
Both RAD & Prototyping Model facilitates reusability of componentsChoose the correct option from given below:
Both Software companies and DevelopersThe reason for software bugs and failures is due to
Bottom-up DesignThe ___________________ model starts with most specific and basic components. It proceeds with composing higher level of components by using basic or lower level components.
Boundary value analysisWhich of the following is black box testing
Boundary valuesThe input is divided into higher and lower end values.If these values pass the test, it is assumed that all values in between may pass too.
BranchesIn almost all serious software development projects, a revision or version control system is used. This version control system keeps a record of changes in source code files and is usually built in a tree-like structure.
Breadth test and depth testMaintenance testing is performed using which methodology?
Client RequirementsOver the time, customer may ask for new featuresor functions in the software.
Code-reuseProgramming interfaces of present-day languages are verysophisticated and are equipped huge library functions.
CodingWhich one of the following is not a phase of Prototyping Model?
CohesionIt is grouping of all functionally related elements
Command PromptIt is text-based notifier that is mostly shows thecontext in which the user is working. It is generated by the
software system.
Command Prompt , CommandA ___________is an executable instruction. It may have one ormore parameters.
Commercial Off-The-Shelf systemsCOTS stands for
CompetenceYou should not misrepresent your level of competence. You shouldnot knowingly accept work that is outside your competence.
CompleteWhich of the following property of SRS is depicted by the statement : “Conformity to a standard is maintained” ?
Completing a scope statementWhat should a project manager do or follow to ensure clear boundaries for project completion?
Component reuseConsider the example and categorize it accordingly, “A pattern-matching system developed as part of a text-processing system may be reused in a database management system”.
Computer information systemA field studying computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software and hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society, whereas IS emphasizes functionality over design.
Computer misuseYou should not use your technical skills to misuse otherpeople’s computers.
Computer science belongs to Software engineeringWhich of these is incorrect ?
Concurrent ModelIf you were to create client/server applications, which model would you go for?
Concurrent ModelModel preferred to create client/server applications is
ConfidentialityYou should normally respect the confidentiality of your employers or clients irrespective of whether or not a formal confidentiality agreement has been signed.
Confidentiality, Competence, Intellectual Property Rights, Computer misuse, SecuritySoftware Engineering ethics includes: (select all correct answers)
Corrective MaintenanceThis includes modifications and updations donein order to correct or fix problems, which are either discovered by user or concluded by user error reports.
Cost constraintsIt refers to the budgeted amount available for the project.
COTS-solution systemsWhat are generic application systems that may be designed to support a particular business type, activity, or sometimes a complete enterprise?
Data collection systemsThese are systems that collect data from their environment using a set of sensors and send that data to other systems for processing.
data structure componentIt is often easier to use if these two concerns are divided as much as possible into separate sets of client functions.
Database managementSoftware Design documentation contains the following except for:
Software specificationThe functionality of the software and constraints on itsoperation must be defined.
Hardware platformThis is the tangible part of the development system.
FALSESoftware engineering helps to this
programming complexity.
GeneralityIt is important in designing software that is free from unnatural restrictions and limitations.
Size of moduleWhich of the following is not used in measuring the size of the software
Development typeChoice of a particular
operating system may be made depending upon, except:
Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possibleExplain what is meant by  with reference to one of the eight principles as per the ACM/IEEE Code of Ethics ?
ModularityIt implies separating software into components according to functionality and responsibility.
eightThe modification of the software to match changes in the ever changing environment, falls under which category of software maintenance?
Software design and implementationThe software to meet the specificationmust be produced.
DevelopersUnit testing is done by
Software DesignIt is a process to conceptualize the software requirements into software
implementation.
Systems for modeling and simulation.These
are systems that are developed byscientists
and engineers to model physical processes or situations, which include many,
separate, interacting objects.
Systems of systemsThese are systems that are composed of a number
of othersoftware
systems.
threeSelective retest techniques may be more economical than the “retest-all”technique.How many selective retest techniques are there?
ii, i, v, iv, iiiArrange the given sequence to form a SRS Prototype outline as per IEEE SRS Standard.
Information SystemIt is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information.
Target-HostThe
software program, which is being developed in theorganization, needs to be designed for host machines at the
customers end.
Regression or Stress TestingIt is a process done in some projects to carry out
a test for a longer period of time. This type of testing is used to determine
behavior of a product when used continuously over a period of time
Organization ChangesIf
there is any business level change at clientend, such as reduction of organization strength, acquiring another
company, organization venturing into new business, need to modify in the original
software may arise.
SpiralWhich of the following life cycle model can be chosen if the development team has less experience on similar projects?
It scales up well to large projectsWhich of the following statements regarding Build & Fix Model is wrong?
Incremental DevelopmentAn ________________ process simplifies verification. If you develop software by adding small increments of functionality, then, for verification, you only need to deal with the added portion
TestingWhich of the following is not considered as a risk in project management?
Diagonal PrototypeWhich is not one of the types of prototype of Prototyping Model?
impractical but possibleExhaustive testing is
ENVIRONMENTWhich of these are not among the eight principles followed by Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice ?
User’s endBeta testing is done at
FALSEIn industry, software engineering is usually needed to
develop large programs to accommodate functions.
programIt  is an
executable code, which serves some computational purpose.
Intellectual property rights.You should be aware of local laws governing the
useof intellectual property such as patents and
copyright.
Software EngineeringThe application of a systematic, disciplined,
quantifiable approach to the development, operation and maintenance of
software.
Identification & TracingIt
involves activities pertaining to identificationof requirement of modification or maintenance
FALSEA good decomposition of a problem should
interactions among various components.
Software evolutionThe software must evolve to meet changing customer needs.
White-box TestingIt is conducted to test program and its implementation, in order to improve
code efficiency or structure. It is also known as ‘Structural’ testing.
Progress can be measured for Incremental ModelHow is Incremental Model different from Spiral Model?
software productIt is considered to be a collection of executable programming code, associated libraries and documentations made for a specific purpose.
Incremental developmentThis approach interleaves
the activities of specification, development, and validation. The system is
developed as a series of versions (increments), with each version adding
functionality to the previous version.
Increasing SupplyWhich of these does not account for software failure ?
Software ValidationThe fundamental notions of software engineering does not account for ?
Software Development Life CycleSDLC stands for
Perfective MaintenanceThis
includes modifications and updates donein
order to keep the software usable over long period of time. It includes new
features, new user requirements for refining the software and improve its
reliability and performance.
RecursionThis is a programming technique where a function callsitself and repeats the program code in it unless some pre-defined
condition matches.
Performance testingWhich of the following is non-functional testing?
Run chartLower and upper limits are present in which chart?
SoftwareIt refers to computer programs and the manuals (if any) that support them.
Reuse-oriented software engineeringThis approach
is based on the existence ofa significant
number of reusable components. The system development process focuses on
integrating these components into a system rather than developing them from
scratch
fourMaintenance is classified into how many categories ?
HardwareThis category includes the computer itself, which is often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipment.
Linear Model & Prototyping ModelThe Incremental Model is combination of elements of
Software EngineeringIt is a systematic approach to the production of
software that takes into account practical cost, schedule, and dependability
issues, as well as the needs of software customers and producers.
ReengineeringProgram modularization and Source code translation are the activities of_____________
Requirement GatheringThis is usually the first part of any software
product. This stage starts when you are thinking about developing software. In
this phase, you meet customers or prospective customers, analyzing market
requirements and features that are in demand.
ProjectA temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
Structured CodingIn
reference with top-down analysis, _________________ sub-divides the modules into further smaller units of code.
Design solutionsWhich of the following is not included in SRS ?
Host ModificationsIf
any of the hardware and/or platform (such asoperating system) of the target host changes, software changes are
needed to keep adaptability.
Programming styleThis is set of coding rules followed by all the programmers to write the code.
PolymorphismOOD
languages provide a mechanism where methodsperforming similar tasks but vary in arguments, can be assigned same name.
Structural testingWhite Box techniques are also classified as
radial, angularThe two dimensions of spiral model are
Portability, Interoperability, Reusability, Adaptability, MaintenanceThese aspects are important when the software is
moved from one platform to another: (select all correct answers)
FaultIt is also known as a bug, is a result of an error which can cause system to fail.
Systems are developed by configuring and integrating existing application systemsCOTS product reuse means
Scope constraintsIt refers
to what must be done to produce the project's end result
Functional specification__________________ documents show the behavior or functionality of a software product on an abstract level.
EncapsulationIn OOD, the attributes (data variables) and methods(operation on the data) are bundled together is called _________________.
Requirement documentationThese
documentations contain all thenecessary
information, which are needed to build the software
FrameworkWhich of the following is a generic structure that is extended to create a more specific subsystem or application?
Functional TestingThis is carried out to make sure that the software is doing exactly what it is supposed to do. This type of testing is a must before any software is released to customers.
Implementation and CodingThis is usually the longest phase in the product
life cycle. Each developer has to write his/her own code and collaborate with
other developers to make sure that different components can interoperate with
each other.
Unit TestingIt is testing one part or one
component of the product. The developer usually does this when he/she has
completed writing code for that part of the product.
FALSEare
absolutely necessary to achieve a good quality software cost effectively.
Top-down analysisUnder
__________________, the problem is broken down into small pieces where each one
has some significance. Each problem is individually solved and steps are
clearly stated about how to solve the problem.
Developer’s endAlpha testing is done at
Structured designIt is a conceptualization of problem into several well-organized elements
of solution
Increases reusability of components, Highly specialized & skilled developers/designers are requiredWhat is the major drawback of using RAD Model?
Generality______________ measures the ability of a regression test selection technique to handle realistic applications.
Implementation and unit testingDuring
this stage, the software design is realized as a set of programs or program
units
TRUEThe outcome of is an
efficient and reliable software product.
Software Process Improvement and Capability DeterminationSPICE stands for
Top level managementWhich of the following is responsible for the quality objective?
Software is set of programs, documentation & configuration of dataWhat is a Software ?
InheritanceOOD
allows similar classes to stack up in hierarchicalmanner where the lower or sub-classes can import, implement and
re-use allowed variables and methods from their immediate super classes.
highA 66.6% risk is considered as
TRUEhe most significant factor
in determining which software engineering methods and techniques are most
important is the that is being developed.
high effectivenessWhich of the following is not an advantages of software reuse?
WorkflowThe process mapping is a ______ diagram
function-oriented designIn ________________, the system comprises of many smaller sub-systems known as functions.
no subset of individual requirements described in it conflict with each otherThe SRS is said to be  if and only if
Operational, Maintenance, TransitionalCharacteristics of a good software: (select all correct answers)
Process specialization“An ordering system may be adapted to cope with a centralized ordering process in one company and a distributed process in another.” Which category the example belong to?
Large Software, Scalability, Cost, Dynamic Nature, Quality Managementsoftware process
Modularity, Maintainability, Flexibility, ScalabilityThese aspects briefs about how well software has
the capabilities to maintain itself in the ever-changing environment: (select
all correct answers)
Software ReleasesBefore you start selling any software product,
it is officially released. This means that you create a state of the software
in your repository, make sure that it has been tested for functionality and
freeze the code.
Testing___________ is probably the most important phase for
long-term support as well as for the reputation of the company.
White box testingWhat is Cyclomatic complexity?
RAD ModelWhich model can be selected if user is involved in all the phases of SDLC?
Your employer releases a safety-critical system without finishing the testing of the systemIdentify an ethical dilemma from the situations mentioned below:
White box testingThe testing in which code is checked
GeneralityIt is important in designing software that is free from unnatural restrictions and limitations.
VerifiableConsider the following Statement: “The output of a program shall be given within 10 secs of event X 10% of the time.”What characteristic of SRS is being depicted here ?
TRUEIf the were not based on
scientific and engineering concepts, it would be easier to re-create new
software than to scale an existing one.
Microsoft.NET are specific to which platform?
Software developersThey deal with structures and algorithms without regard for the meaning or importance of the data that is involved.
Prototyping & SpiralWhich two models doesn’t allow defining requirements early in the cycle?
The waterfall modelThis takes the fundamental process activities of
specification, development, validation, and evolution and represents them as
separate process phases such as requirements specification, software design,
implementation, testing, and so on.
Internship managementWhich of the following is incorrect activity for the configuration management of a software system?
ProceduresThese are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system.
Motivation________________ is the ability to encourage by "push or pull" technical people to produce to their best ability.
Interactive transaction-based applicationsThese are applications that executeon a remote computer and that are accessed by
users from their own PCs or terminals.
Non-VerifiableConsider the following Statement: “The product should have a good human interface.”What characteristic of SRS is being depicted here ?
λ-calculusMost
functional programming languages use ______________  astheir type systems. λ-expressions are executed by evaluating them
as they occur.
It defines a set of negotiation activities at the beginning of each pass around the spiralHow is WINWIN Spiral Model different from Spiral Model?
Preventive MaintenanceThis
includes modifications and updations toprevent
future problems of the software. It aims to attend problems, which are not
significant at this moment but may cause serious issues in future.
Time constraintsIt refers
to the amount of time available to complete a project
FailureIt is said to be the inability of the system to perform thedesired task.
low costThe open source movement has meant that there is a huge reusable code base available at
Linear Model & Prototyping ModelThe Incremental Model is a result of combination of elements of which two models?
QualityIt is the ability of a set of inherent characteristics of a product, service,
product component, or process to fulfill requirements of customers.
Top-down analysisA
software is always made to perform some rationalwork. This rational work is known as problem in the software
parlance.
Software Engineeringranch of discipline associated with the development of software
product using well-defined scientific principles, methods and procedures.
VerificationIt is
the process of confirming if the software is meeting the business requirements,
and is developed adhering to the proper specifications and methodologies.
SoftwareIt refers to computer programs and the manuals (if
any) that support them.
Design ConstraintsWhich of the following is included in SRS ?
Reverse Engineering and ReengineeringWhich technique is applied to ensure the continued evolution of legacy systems ?
Doesn’t work well for smaller projectsIdentify the disadvantage of Spiral Model.
FALSEThe need of software engineering arises because of of change in user requirements and environment on which the software
is working.
Equivalence classThe input is divided into similar classes. If oneelement of a class passes the test, it is assumed that all the class is passed.
softwareconsidered to be a collection of executable programming code,
associated libraries and documentations.
SoftwareWhich metric is related to the software maintenance
design documentsAfter defining architecture, software components and their interfaces, the next phase of development is the creation of __________________.
Embedded control systemsThese are software control systems that control andmanage hardware devices.
licensingEfficiency in a software product does not include ________
Evaluating deliverable to find errorsWhich of the following term describes testing?
Naming conventionsThis
section defines how to name functions,variables,
constants and global variables.
Evolutionary development usually has two flavors; exploratory development, and throw-away prototypingIdentify the correct statement with respect to Evolutionary development:
RAD & PrototypingWhich two of the following models will not be able to give the desired outcome if user’s participation is not involved?
Project Management Life CycleThe process each manager follows during the life of a project is known as
Entertainment systemThese are systems that are primarily for personal use andwhich are intended to entertain the user.
InclusivenessWhich regression test selection technique exposes faults caused by modifications?
Quality ManagementIt is the sum of all planned systematic activities and processes for
creating, controlling and assuring quality indicates how quality
management relates to the typical product development.
Rapid Application DevelopmentRAD stands for
Non-verifiableConsider the following Statement: “The data set will contain an end of file character.”What characteristic of SRS is being depicted here ?
Sanity TestingIt is a very basic check to see if all software
components compile with each other without a problem.
Software validationThe software must be validated to ensure that it does whatthe customer wants.
Easier to test and debug & It is used when there is a need to get a product to the market earlyWhat is the major advantage of using Incremental Model?
Software dependenceWhich of these software engineering activities are not a part of software processes ?
ObjectsAll
entities involved in the solution design are known as __________.For example, person, banks, company,
and customers are treated as objects.
Stand-alone applications.These are application systems that run on a
local computer, such as a PC.
ErrorThese are actual coding mistakes made by developers. In addition, there is a difference in output of software and desired output is considered as ______.
FALSEproblem
has to be decomposed such that each component of the decomposed problem can be
solved and then the solution of the different components can
be combined to get the full solution.
A field studying computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software and hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society, whereas IS emphasizes functionality over design.
User documentationThese
Object Oriented DesignIt works
around the entities and their characteristics instead of functions involved in
the software system. This design strategies focuses on entities and its
characteristics.
Software process modelsIt is a simplified representation of a
software process. Each process represents a process from a particular perspective,
and thus provides only partial information about that process.
projectQuality planning is the process of developing a quality plan for
Technical documentationThese
documentations are maintained by thedevelopers
and actual coders. These documents, as a whole, represent information about the
code.
Regression TestingWhat type of software testing is generally used in Software Maintenance?
Software maintainability & functionalityWhat are attributes of good software ?
Strict evaluationIt
is a method of evaluating the expression passed toa function as an argument.
SafeWhich selective retest technique selects every test case that causes a modified program to produce a different output than its original version?
System softwareTypically
each development platform consists of the following components, except:
Web based systems have led to degradation of programming languagesWhich of these is not true ?
FALSEneeds to be written using
software engineering principles.
Top Down DesignIt takes
the whole software system as one entity and then decomposes it to achieve more
than one sub-system or component based on some characteristics.
Version ManagementEvery time a new software is issued to the customer, developers have to maintain version and configuration related documentation.
Lack of adequate training in software engineeringAs per an IBM report, “31%of the project get cancelled before they are completed, 53% overrun their cost estimates by an average of 189% and for every 100 projects, there are 94 restarts”.What is the reason for these statistics ?
Process analysisIdentify the sub-process of process improvement
TRUEIf the different sub components are interrelated, then
the different components cannot be solved separately and the desired
in complexity will not be realized.
RADIf you were a lead developer of a software company and you are asked to submit a project/product within a stipulated time-frame with no cost barriers, which model would you select?
Pure functionsThese functions do not include destructive updates, thatis, they do not affect any I/O or memory and if they are not in
use, they can easily be removed without hampering the rest of the program.
Negotiating with clientSoftware evolution does not comprises:
Market ConditionsPolicies,
which changes over the time, such astaxation
and newly introduced constraints like, how to maintain bookkeeping, may trigger
need for modification.
TRUESoftware engineering is a branch of , which uses well-defined engineering concepts required to produce
efficient, durable, scalable, in-budget and on-time software products.
FlexibilityWhich of these does not affect different types of software as a whole?
Waterfall ModelWhich one of the following models is not suitable for accommodating any change?
ValidationIt is
process of examining whether or not the software satisfies the user
requirements. It is carried out at the end of the SDLC.
Functional ProgrammingThis is style of programming language, which uses the concepts of mathematical functions.
radial, angularThe spiral model has two dimensions namely _____________ and ____________
Modular ProgrammingWhile
programming, the code is broken downinto
smaller group of instructions. These groups are known as modules, subprograms,
or subroutines.
Requirements analysis and definitionThe
system’s services, constraints, andgoals are established by consultation with system users.
They are then defined in detail and serve as a system specification.