Computer Architecture and Organization

Computer Architecture and Organization

This will introduce students to the main concepts of computer architecture; Hardware components of a computer; Instruction set: instruction formats, encoding of instructions, types; Execution unit: registers design, combinational shifters, ALU, division and multiplication algorithms; Control unit: register transfer language, hardwired and microprogrammed control unit; Memory unit: RAM, cache memory, associative memory, virtual memory; Input/output processors; Introduction to Assembly Language; Introduction multiprocessor systems and parallel processing.




Hard Drive
AnswersQuestions
_______ are still used in many computers for situations where data must be read and written quickly.
Flash DriveThe typical type of external memory that most people use and are
familiar with are ______
CISCIt is made to reduce the number of instructions per program, ignoring the number of cycles per instruction.
Peripheral Component Interconnect 
Bus____________ is a set of conductors intended to transmit data, address or control information to different elements in a microprocessor.
Fritz PfluemerWho
was invented the magnetic tape for the purpose of recording?
Parity CodeIt is easy to include (append) one parity bit
either to the left of MSB or to the right of LSB of original bit stream.
Random Access Memory__________ is a form of computer memory that can be read and changed in any order, typically used to store working data and machine code
NibbleIf
you have 4 bits, you make one ______
TRUEA level-triggered interrupt is requested by holding the interrupt signal at its particular
(high or low) active logic level.
TRUERISC is a type of microprocessor architecture which uses small, general purpose and
highly optimized instruction set rather than more specialized set of instructions found
in others.
NOR-FLASHIt includes most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called ___________.
DRAMIt is made up of memory cell where each cell is composed of one transistor.
giant ENIAC machinefirst substantial computer?
memoryIt is the nature of the operation is indicated by read and write control signals.
FALSETypically, a memory module will consist of M words of equal length.
BUFFERIt is a temporary
physical storage used to hold data
during execution of process from one place to one another.
TRUEVacuum Tubes (1950s) - one bit on the size of a thumb
1951Magnetic tape was first used to record computer data in _____ on the
Eckert-Mauchly UNIVAC I.
USB portMost external hard drives connect to a computer through a ______
Cycle stealing modeThe is used in systems
in which the CPU should not be disabled for the length of time needed for burst
transfer modes.
ProcessorThe
___________ reads in instructions and data, writes out data
after processing, and uses control signals to control the overall
operation of the system.
Address lineIt is used to designate the source or destination of the
data on the data bus
EPROMThis programmed with the use of very high voltages and
exposure to apporoximately 20 minutes of
intense UV light.
Clock speedMicroprocessors uses a clock signal to control the rate at which instructions are executed, synchronize other internal components and to control the data transfer between them.
2004Both PCI and PCI-X were superseded by PCI Express, which
was introduced in?
Intel Core i7Examples of microprocessor
data busThese lines, collectively, are called the .
Direct mappingIt
is the simplest technique of mapping.
CDRAM______
can handle CPU, direct memory access (DMA) and
video refresh at the same time by utilizing a high-speed video interface.
Error correction codes______ are used to correct the error(s) present in
the received data (bit stream) so that, we will get the original data.
Bus interconnectionA bus consists of
multiple pathways or lines
1992The "conventional PCI was designed by Intel and introduced in ______.
TRUEThe first substantial computer was the giant ENIAC machine by John W. Mauchly and
J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania.
INPUTDriven by the motherboard, received by the PCI card
Both low cost and high-speedIt is an advantage of a microprocessor.
MonitorA _________ usually comprises the display device, circuitry, casing, and power supply.
TRUEProcessors typically have an internal interrupt mask register which allows selective
enabling and disabling of hardware interrupts.
FALSEPCI is a hardware bus used for
adding internal components to a laptop.
FALSEWord Width is the number of bits in the internal data bus of a processor or it is the
number of bits a processor can process at a time
Chewing gumIn many modern personal computers, the RAM comes in
an easily upgraded form of modules called or DRAM modules about the size of a few sticks of _________
TRUEInterrupts may be implemented in hardware as a distinct component with control
lines, or they may be integrated into the memory subsystem.
Peripheral Component InterconnectWhat does PCI stands for?
ProcessorThe
________ reads in instructions and data
processorIt reads in instructions and data, writes out data
after processing, and uses control signals to control the overall operation of the
system.
Spurious interruptIt is the occurrence of a false interrupt request signal.
DRAM______ stores a bit of data using a transistor and capacitor pair.
error detection codesIt
used to detect the error(s) present in the received data(bit stream).
CAPACITY AND ACCESS TIMEThe
memory characterised on the basis of two key factors; _______ and
_____________.
TRUEA bus is a communication pathway connecting two or more devices
Magnetic & OpticalElectronic
data storage mediums that we can utilize
solid-state memory devicesTerm RAM refers solely
to ________________
TRUEA microprocessor is an integrated circuit (IC) which incorporates core functions of a
computer's central processing unit (CPU).
busA is a communication pathway connecting two or more devices
Erasable Programmable Read-Only MemoryWhat does EPROM stand for?
Program counter__________ is saved in a known place.
NOR-flashA type of flash memory
MicroprocessorIt is an integrated circuit (IC) which incorporates core functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
SRAMIn _______, a bit of data is stored using the state of a six-transistor memory cell.
TRUEProcessor to memory: The processor writes a unit of data to memory.
cellThe memory ________ is the fundamental building block of
computer memory.
Redundant Array of Independent DisksA disk or solid state drive (SSD) subsystem that
increases performance or provides fault tolerance or both.
FALSEBlueberry released the first
generation Macintosh, which was the first computer to come with a graphical user
interface(GUI) and a mouse.
None of the aboveTypical control lines include:
Erasable Programmable Read-Only MemoryWhat does EPROM stand for?
TRUEThe 1960s saw large mainframe computers become much more common in large
industries and with the US military and space program.
TRUEThe first microprocessor was introduced in the year 1972.
Memory Cell___________
is the fundamental building block of computer memory.
FALSECache memory is a random access memory that is integrated into the hard disk drive.
FALSEIn the 1960's two devices would be invented that would improve the computer field
and set in motion the beginning of the computer revolution.
External DevicesAny peripheral device that is not housed inside
the computer cabinet.
copying
dataIt
is from the external memory sources is done the same way as copying data to and
from the existing hard drive.
1971first
microprocessor introduced?
Processor communicationThis involves a number of tasks, primarily the
transference of data between the processor and an I/O module, accepting and
decoding commands sent by the processor, reporting of current status, and an
ability for the I/O module to recognise its own unique address.
Magnetic DiskIt is
a storage device that uses a magnetization process to write, rewrite and access
data.
Semiconductor MemoriesIt is a digital electronic data storage device.
185 TBCapacity of true
tape
I/O ProcessorsIt
is a processor with direct memory access
capability. In this, the computer system is divided into a memory unit and
number of processors.
Level-triggered interruptIt is requested by holding the interrupt signal at its particular (high or low) active logic level.
CONTROL LINEUsed to control the access to and the use of the data and address lines
1928Magnetic tape was invented for recording sound by Fritz Pfleumer in _____ in Germany.
Memory Card_______ are used in devices such as cameras, GPS systems and call phones.
SUPER DENSITY DISK.
DVD is also known as ________________.
TRUEMicroprocessors are very versatile, the same chip can be used for a number of
applications by simply changing the program (instructions stored in the
memory).
TRUEControl signal transmit both commands and timing information between the
modules
TRUERegisters may be called as the Internal Storage device. Input data, Output data and
various other binary data is stored in this unit for further processing.
NONE OF THESEWhich of the following is not belong to non-volatile
memory?
TRUEAll the instructions that are fetched from memory are located in the Instruction
register.
METALWhich of the following is not categorised in
physical characteristics of a memory.
CD-ROMI t is designed to
store computer data in the form of text and graphics, as well as hi-fi stereo
sound.
Network LineThese are the 3 functional groups of a bus
interconnection except?
Data bufferingIt
is a crucial function that manages the speed discrepancy that exists between
the speed of transfer of data between the processor and memory and peripheral
devices.
TRUEA software interrupt is requested by the processor itself upon executing particular
instructions or when certain conditions are met.
Multilevel
cachesAs logic density has increased, it has become possible
to have a cache on the same chip as the processor: the on-chip cache
FALSEIntel's 8086 was the first microprocessor to make it to Home
computers.
TRUEAn edge-triggered interrupt is an interrupt signaled by a level transition on the interrupt
line, either a falling edge (high to low) or a rising edge (low to high).
giant ENIAC machineWhat was the
none of theseWhich is not belongs to optical storage devices?
Oxide sideThe
________ of a tape is the surface that
can be magnetically manipulate by a tape head
volatileBoth static and dynamic RAM are considered _____________.
PCIIt is a hardware bus used for
adding internal components to a desktop computer
1992The "conventional PCI was designed by Intel and
introduced in ______.
1971In what year was the
62The PCI connector is defined as having how many
contacts each side of the dge connector?
RDRAMEntire data blocks are access and transferred
out on a high-speed bus-like interface
Transparent Mode___________
mode takes the most time to transfer a block of
data, yet it is also the most efficient mode in terms of overall system
performance.
Set-associative mappingIt is a compromise that exhibits the strengths of both the
direct and associative approaches while reducing their disadvantages.
Optical storage_______ refers to recording data using light.
EEPROMThis is used in many older computer BIOS chips, is
non-volatile storage that can be erased and programmed several times and allows
only one location at a time to be written or erased.
TRUEControl unit as the name specifies controls the flow of data and signals in the
microprocessor
FALSEThe hard disk drive forms the brain of the Central Processing Unit
Non-maskable interruptsWhat is NMI?
TRUEThen during the year 1976, Intel introduced 8085 processors which is
nothing but an update of 8080 processors.8080 processors are updated by adding two
Enable/Disable Instructions, Three added interrupt pins and serial I/O pins.
TRUEMicroprocessors are very reliable, failure rate is very less as semiconductor
technology is used.
FALSEUsed to control the access to and the use of the data and address system
POWER PINSupplies power to the PCI card
KeyboardA computer _________ is one of the primary input devices used with a computer.