IT-6208 System Integration and Architecture 1

IT-6208 System Integration and Architecture 1

Role of systems architecture in systems integration, performance, and effectiveness. Principles and concepts of devops. Interplay between IT applications roll‐out and related organizational processes.


TRUEThe concept of the design is understood to involve: the specification of measurable goals, objectives, and constraints for the design
Control ModelingModel of control relationships among system components is established : System Structuring ; Software Architecture ; Modular Decomposition ; Control Modeling
Implementation: design implementation, system tests, and operational deployment6th System Integration Life Cycle : Design ; Feasibility Analysis ; Evaluation ; Implementation: design implementation, system tests, and operational deployment
Control Modeling"Model of control relationships among system components is established"
Embedded System"May run on a single processor"
Requirements definition and specification1st System Integration Life Cycle : System architecture development ; Requirements definition and specification ; Management plan:program and project plan ; Feasibility analysis
Resource Sharing, Openness, Concurrency, Scalable, Fault Tolerant and Transparent"Characteristics of Distributed System"
Management plan: program and project plan4th System Integration Life Cycle
Computer-Integrated ManufacturingAcronym: CIM
Extreme ProgrammingDevelopers program and must write the tests for their own code.
System IntegrationEnsures that specific hardware/software components fit together smoothly in a stated configuration : System Integration ; Computer-Integrated Manufacturing ; Computer-Aided Manufacturing ; Computer-Aided Engineering
Computer-Aided EngineeringAcronym: CAE
"Systems design: logical and physical design"5th System Integration Life Cycle
System IntegrationIs essential to the development of large, complex engineered systems. : System Integration ; CAM ; CAE ; CIM
Relationship Model"Data flow or control flow diagrams"
Problem Definition"The design process begins with the identification of a human need and the reduction of this need to a precise set of specifications for the system to be built."
TRUEIt is assumed that, translation from human needs to final design invariably involves the experience, intuition, skill, and creativity of the designer or design team.
System architecture development3rd System Integration Life Cycle : Management plan:program and project plan ; System design: logical and physical design ; System architecture development ; System
"Von Neumann Architecture""Is the design upon which many general purpose computers are based."
Static Structural ModelShows major system components : Dynamic Process Model ; Relationships Model ; Static Structural Model ; Interface Model
Developed, Produced, Deployed, Trained, Used and maintained, Refined, Retired"An operational concept is a shared vision from the perspective of the system’s stakeholders of how the system will be:"
Distributed SystemSystem software runs on loosely integrated group of cooperating processors linked by a network : Personal System ; System ; Distributed System ; Embedded System
Systems design: logical and physical design5th System Integration Life Cycle : Design ; Command ; Systems design: logical and physical design; System
Requirements definition and specification1st System Integration Life Cycle
Embedded SystemMay run on a single processor : Relationship Model ; Interface Model ; System ; Embedded System
Client/Server"Offer distributed services which may be called by clients"
Design SynthesisThis involves generating alternative designs, or _design options, _that might reasonably satisfy system specifications. : Parameterization ; Design Synthesis ; Analysis ; Problem Definition
Distributed System"System software runs on loosely integrated group of cooperating processors linked by a network"
TRUEThe concept of the design is understood to involve: finally, the selection, implementation, and testing of the most preferred alternative
Resource Sharing, Openness, Concurrency, Scalable, Fault Tolerant and TransparentCharacteristics of Distributed System : Resource Sharing, Openness, Concurrency, Scalable, Fault Tolerant and Transparent; System, Openness, Concurrency, Scalable, Fault Tolerant and Transparent ; Resource Sharing, Personal System, Concurrency, Scalable, Fault Tolerant and Transparent
System Development Life CycleAcronym: SDLC
System Integration"Requires the coordination of preexisting and coexisting system components with newly developed ones"
Divisional Structure"This kind of structure will ensure greater output of varieties of similar products."
Use Case"Describes the proposed functionality of the new system"
Scenarios Diagram"Sequence diagram to depict the workflow – as above but graphically portrayed"
Activity Diagram"Is to model the procedural flow of actions that are part of a larger activity"
Requirements"Things that the use case must allow the user to do, such as"
System Structuring"System decomposed into several subsystems"
Scenarios"Description of the steps taken to carry out the use case"
TRUEIt should be noted that, no single realization of the design process is just the fight style for all.
Distributed ObjectNo distinctions made between clients and servers : Distributed Object ; Dynamic Process model ; Personal System ; Client/Server
Dynamic Process Model"Shows process structure of the system"
System Integration"Is essential to the development of large, complex engineered systems."
Interface ModelDefines subsystem interfaces : Interface Model ; Control Modeling ; Dynamic Process Model ; System Structuring
Personal SystemDesigned to run on a single user system : Interface Model ; Dynamic Process Model ; Personal System ; Personal System
Personal System"Designed to run on a single user system"
"Implementation: design implementation, system tests, and operational deployment"6th System Integration Life Cycle
SDLC"Is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information systems"
Prototype and Testing"The ultimate step in the design process involves the fabrication and testing of a prototype or system."
System Thinking"Is a method for understanding an element as far as its motivation, as three stages"
System"A variety of segments intended to achieve a specific goal as indicated by plan."
Functional Structure"The advantages of this kind of structure include quick decision making because the group members are able to communicate easily with each other."
Memory Data RegisterAcronym: MDR
Properties"Represent the non-structural information about the parts of an architecture description"
Software Architecture"Description of the system output by architectural design"
Components"The computational elements and data stores of the system"
TRUEThe concept of the design is understood to involve: the conceptualization and parameterization of alternative candidate designs that meet or surpass specifications;
"Evaluation: system review and plan for replacement/retirement"7th System Integration Life Cycle
Architecture"The organizational structure of a system of CSCIs, identifying its components, their interfaces and a concept of execution among them"
Software ArchitectureDescription of the system output by architectural design : System Structuring ; Architectural Design ; Control Modeling ; Software Architecture
Design Synthesis"This involves generating alternative designs, or that might reasonably satisfy system specifications."
Style"An architectural style represents a family of related systems"
System Design"Design is the essence of engineering."
Memory Address RegisterAcronym: MAR
ParameterizationThe result of design synthesis is the selection of a promising set of preliminary or conceptual designs for the system. : Problem Definition ; Design Synthesis ; Parameterization ; Analysis
Modular DecompositionIdentified subsystems decomposed into modules : Modular Decomposition ; Control Modeling ; System Structuring ; Software Architecture
Architectural DesignProcess for identifying the subsystems that make up a system : Control Modeling ; Software Architecture ; Architectural Design; System Structuring
Distributed Object"No distinctions made between clients and servers"
Ranking and SelectionThe ranking of design alternatives and the ultimate selection of the most preferred design involves the selection of the best parameterization of the best conceptual design. : Problem Definition ; Design Synthesis ; Parameterization ; Ranking and Selection
Modular Decomposition"Identified subsystems decomposed into modules"
CADRefers to the use of modem computing hardware and software in converting the initial idea for a product into a detailed engineering design. : CIM ; CAM ; CAD ; Computer-Aided Design
Management plan: program and project plan4th System Integration Life Cycle : Management plan: program and project plan ; program ; feasibility ; system
Architecture"The fundamental and unifying system structure defined in terms of system elements, interfaces, processes, constraints, and behaviors"
Post"Conditions that must be true once the use case is run e.g. ;"
Architecture"The fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and to the environment and the principles guiding its design and evolution"
Evaluation: system review and plan for replacement/retirement7th System Integration Life Cycle : Problem Definition ; System Design ; Evaluation: system review and plan for replacement/retirement ; Feasibility Analysis
Prototype and TestingThe ultimate step in the design process involves the fabrication and testing of a prototype or system. : Design Synthesis ; Parameterization ; Problem Definition ; Prototype and Testing
Sequence Diagram"Is an interaction diagram that emphasizes the time ordering of messages"
Von Neumann ArchitectureIs the design upon which many general purpose computers are based. : Blaise Pascal Architecture ; Von Neumann Architecture ; Blase Pascal Architecture ; Von Neuman Architecture
Divisional Structure"In a divisional structure, the company will coordinate inter-group relationships to create a work team that can readily meet the needs of a certain customer or group of customers"
Matrix Structure"Team members are given more autonomy and expected to take more responsibility for their work."
System architecture development3rd System Integration Life Cycle
Parameterization"The result of design synthesis is the selection of a promising set of preliminary or conceptual designs for the system."
Evaluation Phase"Measures of performance (MOP) and measures of effectiveness (MOE) are obtained"
Contraints"These are the formal rules an limitations that a use case operates under, and includes pre-post and invariant conditions."
SCRUM"Repetitions of iterative development are referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty days"
Synthesis Phase"The static constructs are used, together with descriptions of the dynamic behavior of the architecture to obtain the executable operational X-architecture (X = executable property)"
Analysis Phase"The static representatives of the functional and physical"
DesignIs the creative process by which our understanding of logic and science is joined with our understanding of human needs and wants to conceive and refine artifacts that serve specific human purposes. : CAD ; CAM ; CAE ; Design
Feasibility analysis2nd System Integration Life Cycle : Management plan:program and project plan ; Feasibility analysis ; System architecture development ; Requirements definition and specification
Static Structural Model"Shows major system components"
TRUEDesign is universally understood to _be a creative, iterative, decision-making process since _there is no unique solution to a given design problem.
Problem DefinitionThe design process begins with the identification of a human need and the reduction of this need to a precise set of specifications for the system to be built. : Parameterization ; Analysis ; Design Synthesis; Problem Definition
Functional Stucture"People who do similar tasks, have similar skills and/or jobs in an organization"
Scrum"Repetitions of iterative development are referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty days."
Project Organization Structure"The teams are put together based on the number of members needed to produce the product or complete the project."
System Integration"Ensures that specific hardware/software components fit together smoothly in a stated configuration"
Client/ServerOffer distributed services which may be called by clients : Dynamic System ; Client/Server ; System ; Personal System
Functional, Project and MatrixWhat is the Three Basic O
TRUEThis gives the detail of the structure of the system including the size, shape, materials, and quantities of components and the interrelationships among these design elements together.
Dynamic Process ModelShows process structure of the system : Control Modeling ; Dynamic Process Model ; Interface Model ; Relationship Model
AnalysisThese design concepts need to be converted into _detailed designs _for all components and subsystems. : Analysis ; Problem Definition ; Design Synthesis ; Parameterization
System"Graphs of components and connectors"
TRUEThe concept of the design is understood to involve: the analysis and ranking of design alternatives;
Computer-Aided ManufacturingAcronym: CAM
Architectural Design"Process for identifying the subsystems that make up a system"
Analysis"These design concepts need to be converted into for all components and subsystems."
System Integration"Is the mix of between related components to accomplish a typical goal."
Relationship ModelData flow or control flow diagrams : Relationship Model ; System ; Interface Model ; Dynamic Process Model
System Architecture"The architecture of a framework characterizes its elevated level structure, uncovering its gross association as an accumulation of cooperating parts."
System StructuringSystem decomposed into several subsystems : Architectural Design ; Control Modeling ; System Structuring ; Software Architecture
Matrix Structure"Are more complex in that they group people in two different ways: by the function they perform and by the product team they are working with."
Stakeholders"Are the people involved in or affected by project activities"
Current Instruction RegisterAcronym: CIR
System IntegrationRequires the coordination of preexisting and coexisting system components with newly developed ones : Ranking and Selection ; Problem Definition ; Parameterization ; System Integration
ConnectorsModel interactions among components
Ranking and Selection"The ranking of design alternatives and the ultimate selection of the most preferred design involves the selection of the best parameterization of the best conceptual design."
Interface Model"Defines subsystem interfaces"
System DesignDesign is the essence of engineering. : Design Synthesis ; Problem Definition ; System Design ; System Integration
Feasibility analysis2nd System Integration Life Cycle
Segments, Connectors, Systems, Properties, StylesComponents expected to demonstrate a product engineering include
Project Organization StructureThe teams are put
together based on the number of members needed to produce the product or
complete the project.
Divisional StructureIn a divisional
structure, the company will coordinate inter-group relationships to create a
work team that can readily meet the needs of a certain customer or group of
customers
System ThinkingIs a method for
understanding an element as far as its motivation, as three stages
StakeholdersAre the people
involved in or affected by project activities
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
SystemA variety of segments
intended to achieve a specific goal as indicated by plan.
Functional, Project and MatrixWhat is the Three Basic O
System ArchitectureThe architecture of a
framework characterizes its elevated level structure, uncovering its gross
association as an accumulation of cooperating parts.
Extreme ProgrammingDevelopers program and must write the tests for their own code.
Functional StructureThe advantages of
this kind of structure include quick decision making because the group members
are able to communicate easily with each other.
SystemA variety of segments
intended to achieve a specific goal as indicated by plan.
Matrix StructureAre
more complex in that they group people in two different ways: by the function
they perform and by the product team they are working with.
System ArchitectureThe architecture of a
framework characterizes its elevated level structure, uncovering its gross
association as an accumulation of cooperating parts.
Project Organization StructureThe teams are put
together based on the number of members needed to produce the product or
complete the project.
Extreme ProgrammingDevelopers program and must write the tests for their own code.
Divisional StructureIn a divisional
structure, the company will coordinate inter-group relationships to create a
work team that can readily meet the needs of a certain customer or group of
customers
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
Functional StructureThe advantages of
this kind of structure include quick decision making because the group members
are able to communicate easily with each other.
SDLCIs a framework for
describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information
systems
StakeholdersAre the people
involved in or affected by project activities
Segments, Connectors, Systems, Properties, StylesComponents expected to demonstrate a product engineering include
Functional, Project and MatrixWhat is the Three Basic O
ScrumRepetitions of
iterative development are referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty
days.
System ThinkingIs a method for
understanding an element as far as its motivation, as three stages
SystemA variety of segments
intended to achieve a specific goal as indicated by plan.
SDLCIs a framework for
describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information
systems
Extreme ProgrammingDevelopers program and must write the tests for their own code.
Segments, Connectors, Systems, Properties, StylesComponents expected to demonstrate a product engineering include
System ArchitectureThe architecture of a
framework characterizes its elevated level structure, uncovering its gross
association as an accumulation of cooperating parts.
System ThinkingIs a method for
understanding an element as far as its motivation, as three stages
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
Project Organization StructureThe teams are put
together based on the number of members needed to produce the product or
complete the project.
Divisional StructureIn a divisional
structure, the company will coordinate inter-group relationships to create a
work team that can readily meet the needs of a certain customer or group of
customers
Matrix StructureAre
more complex in that they group people in two different ways: by the function
they perform and by the product team they are working with.
Functional, Project and MatrixWhat is the Three Basic O
ScrumRepetitions of
iterative development are referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty
days.
StakeholdersAre the people
involved in or affected by project activities
Functional StructureThe advantages of
this kind of structure include quick decision making because the group members
are able to communicate easily with each other.
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
Segments, Connectors, Systems, Properties, StylesComponents expected to demonstrate a product engineering include
SystemA variety of segments
intended to achieve a specific goal as indicated by plan.
System ThinkingIs a method for
understanding an element as far as its motivation, as three stages
Matrix StructureAre
more complex in that they group people in two different ways: by the function
they perform and by the product team they are working with.
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
Divisional StructureIn a divisional
structure, the company will coordinate inter-group relationships to create a
work team that can readily meet the needs of a certain customer or group of
customers
Extreme ProgrammingDevelopers program and must write the tests for their own code.
Functional, Project and MatrixWhat is the Three Basic O
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
System ArchitectureThe architecture of a
framework characterizes its elevated level structure, uncovering its gross
association as an accumulation of cooperating parts.
Functional StructureThe advantages of
this kind of structure include quick decision making because the group members
are able to communicate easily with each other.
SDLCIs a framework for
describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information
systems
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
Functional StructureThe advantages of
this kind of structure include quick decision making because the group members
are able to communicate easily with each other.
Divisional StructureIn a divisional
structure, the company will coordinate inter-group relationships to create a
work team that can readily meet the needs of a certain customer or group of
customers
System ThinkingIs a method for
understanding an element as far as its motivation, as three stages
Matrix StructureAre
more complex in that they group people in two different ways: by the function
they perform and by the product team they are working with.
Segments, Connectors, Systems, Properties, StylesComponents expected to demonstrate a product engineering include
ScrumRepetitions of
iterative development are referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty
days.
Extreme ProgrammingDevelopers program and must write the tests for their own code.
Functional, Project and MatrixWhat is the Three Basic O
Project Organization StructureThe teams are put
together based on the number of members needed to produce the product or
complete the project.
SystemA variety of segments
intended to achieve a specific goal as indicated by plan.
StakeholdersAre the people
involved in or affected by project activities
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
System ArchitectureThe architecture of a
framework characterizes its elevated level structure, uncovering its gross
association as an accumulation of cooperating parts.
SDLCIs a framework for
describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information
systems
Project Organization StructureThe teams are put
together based on the number of members needed to produce the product or
complete the project.
System ThinkingIs a method for
understanding an element as far as its motivation, as three stages
Matrix StructureAre
more complex in that they group people in two different ways: by the function
they perform and by the product team they are working with.
ScrumRepetitions of
iterative development are referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty
days.
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
Divisional StructureIn a divisional
structure, the company will coordinate inter-group relationships to create a
work team that can readily meet the needs of a certain customer or group of
customers
StakeholdersAre the people
involved in or affected by project activities
Segments, Connectors, Systems, Properties, StylesComponents expected to demonstrate a product engineering include
System ArchitectureThe architecture of a
framework characterizes its elevated level structure, uncovering its gross
association as an accumulation of cooperating parts.
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
Extreme ProgrammingDevelopers program and must write the tests for their own code.
Functional StructureThe advantages of
this kind of structure include quick decision making because the group members
are able to communicate easily with each other.
Functional, Project and MatrixWhat is the Three Basic O
Functional StructureThe advantages of
this kind of structure include quick decision making because the group members
are able to communicate easily with each other.
System ThinkingIs a method for
understanding an element as far as its motivation, as three stages
Functional, Project and MatrixWhat is the Three Basic O
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
System ArchitectureThe architecture of a
framework characterizes its elevated level structure, uncovering its gross
association as an accumulation of cooperating parts.
Project Organization StructureThe teams are put
together based on the number of members needed to produce the product or
complete the project.
SDLCIs a framework for
describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information
systems
ScrumRepetitions of
iterative development are referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty
days.
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
Matrix StructureAre
more complex in that they group people in two different ways: by the function
they perform and by the product team they are working with.
Divisional StructureIn a divisional
structure, the company will coordinate inter-group relationships to create a
work team that can readily meet the needs of a certain customer or group of
customers
Segments, Connectors, Systems, Properties, StylesComponents expected to demonstrate a product engineering include
System ArchitectureThe architecture of a
framework characterizes its elevated level structure, uncovering its gross
association as an accumulation of cooperating parts.
SystemA variety of segments
intended to achieve a specific goal as indicated by plan.
StakeholdersAre the people
involved in or affected by project activities
ScrumRepetitions of
iterative development are referred to as sprints, which normally last thirty
days.
Divisional StructureIn a divisional
structure, the company will coordinate inter-group relationships to create a
work team that can readily meet the needs of a certain customer or group of
customers
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
Functional, Project and MatrixWhat is the Three Basic O
System IntegrationIs the mix of between
related components to accomplish a typical goal.
Segments, Connectors, Systems, Properties, StylesComponents expected to demonstrate a product engineering include
Extreme ProgrammingDevelopers program and must write the tests for their own code.
Activity DiagramIs to model the
procedural flow of actions that are part of a larger activity
StyleAn architectural
style represents a family of related systems
Use CaseDescribes the
proposed functionality of the new system
PropertiesRepresent the
non-structural information about the parts of an architecture description
Scenarios DiagramSequence
diagram to depict the workflow – as above but graphically portrayed
ConnectorsModel interactions among components
ArchitectureThe fundamental
organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to
each other and to the environment and the principles guiding its design and
evolution
ScenariosDescription
of the steps taken to carry out the use case
PostConditions
that must be true once the use case is run e.g. <order is modified and
consistent>;
Sequence DiagramIs an interaction
diagram that emphasizes the time ordering of messages
Synthesis PhaseThe static constructs
are used, together with descriptions of the dynamic behavior of the architecture
to obtain the executable operational X-architecture (X = executable property)
SystemGraphs of components
and connectors
Synthesis PhaseThe static constructs
are used, together with descriptions of the dynamic behavior of the architecture
to obtain the executable operational X-architecture (X = executable property)
ArchitectureThe fundamental
organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to
each other and to the environment and the principles guiding its design and
evolution
Sequence DiagramIs an interaction
diagram that emphasizes the time ordering of messages
Analysis PhaseThe static
representatives of the functional and physical
StyleAn architectural
style represents a family of related systems
PropertiesRepresent the
non-structural information about the parts of an architecture description
Scenarios DiagramSequence
diagram to depict the workflow – as above but graphically portrayed
Use CaseDescribes the
proposed functionality of the new system
ComponentsThe computational
elements and data stores of the system
ConnectorsModel interactions among components
ArchitectureThe organizational
structure of a system of CSCIs, identifying its components, their interfaces
and a concept of execution among them
ContraintsThese are the formal
rules an limitations that a use case operates under, and includes pre-post and
invariant conditions.
PostConditions
that must be true once the use case is run e.g. <order is modified and
consistent>;
PropertiesRepresent the
non-structural information about the parts of an architecture description
Use CaseDescribes the
proposed functionality of the new system
StyleAn architectural
style represents a family of related systems
ArchitectureThe fundamental and
unifying system structure defined in terms of system elements, interfaces,
processes, constraints, and behaviors
ScenariosDescription
of the steps taken to carry out the use case
Synthesis PhaseThe static constructs
are used, together with descriptions of the dynamic behavior of the architecture
to obtain the executable operational X-architecture (X = executable property)
Activity DiagramIs to model the
procedural flow of actions that are part of a larger activity
ArchitectureThe organizational
structure of a system of CSCIs, identifying its components, their interfaces
and a concept of execution among them
Sequence DiagramIs an interaction
diagram that emphasizes the time ordering of messages
SystemGraphs of components
and connectors
Analysis PhaseThe static
representatives of the functional and physical
Scenarios DiagramSequence
diagram to depict the workflow – as above but graphically portrayed
ComponentsThe computational
elements and data stores of the system
ContraintsThese are the formal
rules an limitations that a use case operates under, and includes pre-post and
invariant conditions.
ConnectorsModel interactions among components
PostConditions
that must be true once the use case is run e.g. <order is modified and
consistent>;
ArchitectureThe fundamental
organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to
each other and to the environment and the principles guiding its design and
evolution
Sequence DiagramIs an interaction
diagram that emphasizes the time ordering of messages
Use CaseDescribes the
proposed functionality of the new system
ScenariosDescription
of the steps taken to carry out the use case
ComponentsThe computational
elements and data stores of the system
ArchitectureThe organizational
structure of a system of CSCIs, identifying its components, their interfaces
and a concept of execution among them
ArchitectureThe fundamental and
unifying system structure defined in terms of system elements, interfaces,
processes, constraints, and behaviors
ArchitectureThe fundamental
organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to
each other and to the environment and the principles guiding its design and
evolution
SystemGraphs of components
and connectors
PostConditions
that must be true once the use case is run e.g. <order is modified and
consistent>;
Activity DiagramIs to model the
procedural flow of actions that are part of a larger activity
Analysis PhaseThe static
representatives of the functional and physical
Synthesis PhaseThe static constructs
are used, together with descriptions of the dynamic behavior of the architecture
to obtain the executable operational X-architecture (X = executable property)
ContraintsThese are the formal
rules an limitations that a use case operates under, and includes pre-post and
invariant conditions.