English for Academic and Professional Purposes Week 1-7

EAPP WEEK 1-7


North Pole, Temperate Zone, summit
-geography

Evaluating details to make judgment.
-drawing conclusion

The human sex chromosomes are of the XX-XY pattern. The Y chromosome is much smaller than the X chromosome. Two types of sperm cells are formed during gametogenesis; half of these have the X chromosome and the others have the Y chromosome. Every egg cell has an X chromosome; therefore, fertilization determines the sex. If a Y sperm cell fertilizes the egg, a male develops.
What is the author's purpose?
-inform the steps in fertilization.

Com - is a prefix which means 'together' or 'with'. If you are asked to serve with others on a project, the group is usually called a
-committee


Until the 1960s, people in the United States did not particularly pay attention to the natural environment. Rather, Americans were more focused on the economy. However, with an increase in oil spills, polluting factories and power plants, and the loss of wilderness, suddenly people realizes they shared common values. They called for a national organization to protect the environment. Accordingly, on April 22, 1970, the first Earth DAY, 20 MILLION Americans took to the streets, parks and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment. Thousands of colleges and universities organized protests against the deterioration of the environment.
The first Earth Day led to the creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the passage of the Clean Air, Clean Water, and Endangered Species Acts. President Richard Nixon and Congress worked together to established the EPA in response to the growing public demand for cleaner water, air and land. Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the national government was not structured to make coordinated attack on the pollutants, which harm human health and degrade the environment. The EPA was assigned the daunting task of repairing the damage already done to the natural environment.
Why does the author mention the first Earth Day in paragraph 2?
-to illustrate how this event resulted in an important organization

Slang words are examples of informal English.
-true

PASSAGE: Study : Teenage brain lacks empathy By Sara Goudarzi If you ever sense teenagers are not taking your feelings into account, it's probably because they're just incapable of doing so. The area of the brain associated with higher-level thinking, empathy, and guilt is underused by teenagers, reports a new study. When considering an action, the teenage medial prefrontal cortex, located in front of the brain, doesn't get as much action as adults. "Thinking strategies change with age," said Sarah Jayne Blakemore of the University College London Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience. "As you get older you use more or less the same brain network to make decisions about your actions as you did when you were a teenager, but the crucial difference is that the distribution of that brain activity shifts from the back of the brain (when you are a teenager) to the front (when you are an adult)." Teen thinking In the study, teens and adults were asked how they would react to certain situations. As they responded, researchers imaged their brains. Although both adults and teens responded similarly to the questions, their brain activity differed. The medial prefrontal cortex was much more active in the adults than in the teens. However, the teenagers had much more activity in the superior temporal sulcus, the brain area involved in predicting future actions based on previous ones. Adults were also much faster at figuring out how their actions would affect themselves and other people. "We think that a teenager's judgment of what they would do in a given situation is driven by the simple question: 'What would I do?'" Blakemore said. "Adults, on the other hand, ask: 'What would I do, given how I would feel and given how the people around me would feel as a result of my actions?'" Developing sensitivity Children start taking into account other people's feelings around the age of five. But the ability develops well beyond this age, the new research suggests. And while some of this sensitivity could be the result of undeveloped regions in the brain, the experience that adults acquire from social interactions also plays an important role. My purpose in reading this: Reading Strategy I will use: 12 "Whatever the reasons, it is clear that teenagers are dealing with, not only massive hormonal shifts, but also substantial neural changes," Blakemore said. "These changes do not happen gradually and steadily between the ages of 0–18. They come on in great spurts and puberty is one of the most dramatic developmental stages." The results of the study were presented today at the BA Festival of Science in the UK.
Why did the author mention ‘hormonal shift’ in the article? 
-to validate the claim of the research on teens’ behavior in relation to their brain development

Academic English uses a complex grammatical structure.
-True

Getting the gist of a text.
-skimming

The reverse of increase is
-decrease

Until the 1960s, people in the United States did not particularly pay attention to the natural environment. Rather, Americans were more focused on the economy. However, with an increase in oil spills, polluting factories and power plants, and the loss of wilderness, suddenly people realizes they shared common values. They called for a national organization to protect the environment. Accordingly, on April 22, 1970, the first Earth DAY, 20 MILLION Americans took to the streets, parks and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment. Thousands of colleges and universities organized protests against the deterioration of the environment. The first Earth Day led to the creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the passage of the Clean Air, Clean Water, and Endangered Species Acts. President Richard Nixon and Congress worked together to established the EPA in response to the growing public demand for cleaner water, air and land. Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the national government was not structured to make coordinated attack on the pollutants, which harm human health and degrade the environment. The EPA was assigned the daunting task of repairing the damage already done to the natural environment.
Why did the author write the passage?
-to discuss the increase in public awareness for a cleaner environment

Use prediction in understanding a text.
-critical reading

Recording questions for follow–up.
-critical reading

Until the 1960s, people in the United States did not particularly pay attention to the natural environment. Rather, Americans were more focused on the economy. However, with an increase in oil spills, polluting factories and power plants, and the loss of wilderness, suddenly people realizes they shared common values. They called for a national organization to protect the environment. Accordingly, on April 22, 1970, the first Earth DAY, 20 MILLION Americans took to the streets, parks and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment. Thousands of colleges and universities organized protests against the deterioration of the environment. The first Earth Day led to the creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the passage of the Clean Air, Clean Water, and Endangered Species Acts. President Richard Nixon and Congress worked together to established the EPA in response to the growing public demand for cleaner water, air and land. Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the national government was not structured to make coordinated attack on the pollutants, which harm human health and degrade the environment. The EPA was assigned the daunting task of repairing the damage already done to the natural environment.
What is the author’s purpose in paragraph 2?
-to describe how the government became more involved in cleaning the environment

The children all smiled upon receiving their present.
- PREsent

Academic English deals with understanding of lexical knowledge and the phonological features of English
-true

Dear Tall, Dark and Handsome — This is your lucky day! The girl of your dreams is just a phone call away. I am 5’ 10’’, slim, pretty, and only 23. I love pop music, good books, exotic foods, and foreign travel. Give me a ring any day after 6 P.M. You won’t be sorry.
Your gal, Jackie.
How did the speaker express her message?
-by integrating humor with some interesting facts in her message

Looking for items in Google search.
-scanning

A regressive move is a move back; an move would mean a move to or toward.
-aggressive

PASSAGE: Study : Teenage brain lacks empathy By Sara Goudarzi If you ever sense teenagers are not taking your feelings into account, it's probably because they're just incapable of doing so. The area of the brain associated with higher-level thinking, empathy, and guilt is underused by teenagers, reports a new study. When considering an action, the teenage medial prefrontal cortex, located in front of the brain, doesn't get as much action as adults. "Thinking strategies change with age," said Sarah Jayne Blakemore of the University College London Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience. "As you get older you use more or less the same brain network to make decisions about your actions as you did when you were a teenager, but the crucial difference is that the distribution of that brain activity shifts from the back of the brain (when you are a teenager) to the front (when you are an adult)." Teen thinking In the study, teens and adults were asked how they would react to certain situations. As they responded, researchers imaged their brains. Although both adults and teens responded similarly to the questions, their brain activity differed. The medial prefrontal cortex was much more active in the adults than in the teens. However, the teenagers had much more activity in the superior temporal sulcus, the brain area involved in predicting future actions based on previous ones. Adults were also much faster at figuring out how their actions would affect themselves and other people. "We think that a teenager's judgment of what they would do in a given situation is driven by the simple question: 'What would I do?'" Blakemore said. "Adults, on the other hand, ask: 'What would I do, given how I would feel and given how the people around me would feel as a result of my actions?'" Developing sensitivity Children start taking into account other people's feelings around the age of five. But the ability develops well beyond this age, the new research suggests. And while some of this sensitivity could be the result of undeveloped regions in the brain, the experience that adults acquire from social interactions also plays an important role. My purpose in reading this: Reading Strategy I will use: 12 "Whatever the reasons, it is clear that teenagers are dealing with, not only massive hormonal shifts, but also substantial neural changes," Blakemore said. "These changes do not happen gradually and steadily between the ages of 0–18. They come on in great spurts and puberty is one of the most dramatic developmental stages." The results of the study were presented today at the BA Festival of Science in the UK.
With which statement listed below would the author of this article most likely agree? 
-Parents should NOT take it personally when their teens don’t feel sorry for how long they work in a day

The word is terracide. It is not committed with guns and knives, but with relentless bulldozers, roaring dump trucks, and giant shovels like mythological beasts. Dynamite cuts and rips apart mountains to reach the minerals inside, leaving nothing but empty, naked hills. The land is left wasted and allowed to slide down upon houses and into streams, making the land unlivable and the stream water undrinkable. This is terracide, or if you prefer, strip mining.
Which of these best describes the author’s view about his subject?
- satirical

The prefix ad - means "to" or "toward". When you support something and call others to accept your point of view, you are its support.
-advocate

Civil War, Gulf War, apartheid
-history

Certain amount can be taken away or from income tax returns.
-deducted

The supervisor was fired due to a questionable conduct in the Workplace.
-CONduct

Simple connectors are used in Academic language.
-false

When a person has a smile that lures or attracts people, we call him/ her
-alluring

PASSAGE: Study : Teenage brain lacks empathy By Sara Goudarzi If you ever sense teenagers are not taking your feelings into account, it's probably because they're just incapable of doing so. The area of the brain associated with higher-level thinking, empathy, and guilt is underused by teenagers, reports a new study. When considering an action, the teenage medial prefrontal cortex, located in front of the brain, doesn't get as much action as adults. "Thinking strategies change with age," said Sarah Jayne Blakemore of the University College London Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience. "As you get older you use more or less the same brain network to make decisions about your actions as you did when you were a teenager, but the crucial difference is that the distribution of that brain activity shifts from the back of the brain (when you are a teenager) to the front (when you are an adult)." Teen thinking In the study, teens and adults were asked how they would react to certain situations. As they responded, researchers imaged their brains. Although both adults and teens responded similarly to the questions, their brain activity differed. The medial prefrontal cortex was much more active in the adults than in the teens. However, the teenagers had much more activity in the superior temporal sulcus, the brain area involved in predicting future actions based on previous ones. Adults were also much faster at figuring out how their actions would affect themselves and other people. "We think that a teenager's judgment of what they would do in a given situation is driven by the simple question: 'What would I do?'" Blakemore said. "Adults, on the other hand, ask: 'What would I do, given how I would feel and given how the people around me would feel as a result of my actions?'" Developing sensitivity Children start taking into account other people's feelings around the age of five. But the ability develops well beyond this age, the new research suggests. And while some of this sensitivity could be the result of undeveloped regions in the brain, the experience that adults acquire from social interactions also plays an important role. My purpose in reading this: Reading Strategy I will use: 12 "Whatever the reasons, it is clear that teenagers are dealing with, not only massive hormonal shifts, but also substantial neural changes," Blakemore said. "These changes do not happen gradually and steadily between the ages of 0–18. They come on in great spurts and puberty is one of the most dramatic developmental stages." The results of the study were presented today at the BA Festival of Science in the UK.
What is the dominant feeling of the author in his article?
- optimistic

Marking key words and summarizing.
-critical reading

Until the 1960s, people in the United States did not particularly pay attention to the natural environment. Rather, Americans were more focused on the economy. However, with an increase in oil spills, polluting factories and power plants, and the loss of wilderness, suddenly people realizes they shared common values. They called for a national organization to protect the environment. Accordingly, on April 22, 1970, the first Earth DAY, 20 MILLION Americans took to the streets, parks and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment. Thousands of colleges and universities organized protests against the deterioration of the environment. The first Earth Day led to the creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the passage of the Clean Air, Clean Water, and Endangered Species Acts. President Richard Nixon and Congress worked together to established the EPA in response to the growing public demand for cleaner water, air and land. Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the national government was not structured to make coordinated attack on the pollutants, which harm human health and degrade the environment. The EPA was assigned the daunting task of repairing the damage already done to the natural environment.
Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude toward the creation of EPA?
-The author believes on the advocacy of the EPA

Quickly reading a travel brochure.
-skimming

The group joined the debate contest.
-CONtest

Until the 1960s, people in the United States did not particularly pay attention to the natural environment. Rather, Americans were more focused on the economy. However, with an increase in oil spills, polluting factories and power plants, and the loss of wilderness, suddenly people realizes they shared common values. They called for a national organization to protect the environment. Accordingly, on April 22, 1970, the first Earth DAY, 20 MILLION Americans took to the streets, parks and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment. Thousands of colleges and universities organized protests against the deterioration of the environment.
The first Earth Day led to the creation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the passage of the Clean Air, Clean Water, and Endangered Species Acts. President Richard Nixon and Congress worked together to established the EPA in response to the growing public demand for cleaner water, air and land. Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the national government was not structured to make coordinated attack on the pollutants, which harm human health and degrade the environment. The EPA was assigned the daunting task of repairing the damage already done to the natural environment.
Why did the author mention the protest in paragraph 1?
-to describe the first Earth Day

PASSAGE: Study : Teenage brain lacks empathy By Sara Goudarzi If you ever sense teenagers are not taking your feelings into account, it's probably because they're just incapable of doing so. The area of the brain associated with higher-level thinking, empathy, and guilt is underused by teenagers, reports a new study. When considering an action, the teenage medial prefrontal cortex, located in front of the brain, doesn't get as much action as adults. "Thinking strategies change with age," said Sarah Jayne Blakemore of the University College London Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience. "As you get older you use more or less the same brain network to make decisions about your actions as you did when you were a teenager, but the crucial difference is that the distribution of that brain activity shifts from the back of the brain (when you are a teenager) to the front (when you are an adult)." Teen thinking In the study, teens and adults were asked how they would react to certain situations. As they responded, researchers imaged their brains. Although both adults and teens responded similarly to the questions, their brain activity differed. The medial prefrontal cortex was much more active in the adults than in the teens. However, the teenagers had much more activity in the superior temporal sulcus, the brain area involved in predicting future actions based on previous ones. Adults were also much faster at figuring out how their actions would affect themselves and other people. "We think that a teenager's judgment of what they would do in a given situation is driven by the simple question: 'What would I do?'" Blakemore said. "Adults, on the other hand, ask: 'What would I do, given how I would feel and given how the people around me would feel as a result of my actions?'" Developing sensitivity Children start taking into account other people's feelings around the age of five. But the ability develops well beyond this age, the new research suggests. And while some of this sensitivity could be the result of undeveloped regions in the brain, the experience that adults acquire from social interactions also plays an important role. My purpose in reading this: Reading Strategy I will use: 12 "Whatever the reasons, it is clear that teenagers are dealing with, not only massive hormonal shifts, but also substantial neural changes," Blakemore said. "These changes do not happen gradually and steadily between the ages of 0–18. They come on in great spurts and puberty is one of the most dramatic developmental stages." The results of the study were presented today at the BA Festival of Science in the UK.
Why did the author mention about the medial prefrontal cortex? 
-to encourage us to take care of our brain

Note taking.
-critical reading

Formal English is used in Academic language
-true

When driving, you are forced to leave the highway because of road repairs. you therefore turn away on a
-detour

The students survey the island where they will conduct their case studies.
-surVEY

General English requires grammatical competence
-false

oasis, sierra, isthmus
-geography

Bat is a Latin word meaning 'fight'. 'To fight with' is the meaning of
-combat

Looking for a definition in a dictionary.
-scanning

An expository text is an example of academic English.
-True

General English pertains to the language of academic disciplines, of texts and literature, and of extended, reasoned discourse.
-false

Uses top–down and bottom–up processes.
-drawing conclusion

Personal Pronoun "I" is used in Academic English.
-false

When a forest is entirely stripped of trees and other plants, we say that it has been
-deforested

A Gallup survey shows that Filipinos are among the happiest people in the world.
-SURvey

PASSAGE: Study : Teenage brain lacks empathy By Sara Goudarzi If you ever sense teenagers are not taking your feelings into account, it's probably because they're just incapable of doing so. The area of the brain associated with higher-level thinking, empathy, and guilt is underused by teenagers, reports a new study. When considering an action, the teenage medial prefrontal cortex, located in front of the brain, doesn't get as much action as adults. "Thinking strategies change with age," said Sarah Jayne Blakemore of the University College London Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience. "As you get older you use more or less the same brain network to make decisions about your actions as you did when you were a teenager, but the crucial difference is that the distribution of that brain activity shifts from the back of the brain (when you are a teenager) to the front (when you are an adult)." Teen thinking In the study, teens and adults were asked how they would react to certain situations. As they responded, researchers imaged their brains. Although both adults and teens responded similarly to the questions, their brain activity differed. The medial prefrontal cortex was much more active in the adults than in the teens. However, the teenagers had much more activity in the superior temporal sulcus, the brain area involved in predicting future actions based on previous ones. Adults were also much faster at figuring out how their actions would affect themselves and other people. "We think that a teenager's judgment of what they would do in a given situation is driven by the simple question: 'What would I do?'" Blakemore said. "Adults, on the other hand, ask: 'What would I do, given how I would feel and given how the people around me would feel as a result of my actions?'" Developing sensitivity Children start taking into account other people's feelings around the age of five. But the ability develops well beyond this age, the new research suggests. And while some of this sensitivity could be the result of undeveloped regions in the brain, the experience that adults acquire from social interactions also plays an important role. My purpose in reading this: Reading Strategy I will use: 12 "Whatever the reasons, it is clear that teenagers are dealing with, not only massive hormonal shifts, but also substantial neural changes," Blakemore said. "These changes do not happen gradually and steadily between the ages of 0–18. They come on in great spurts and puberty is one of the most dramatic developmental stages." The results of the study were presented today at the BA Festival of Science in the UK.
Which statement best describes the author’s attitude toward teenagers? 
-Teens don’t think things out clearly and therefore they are unable to make logical decisions.

If progress is 'stepping forward' and regress means 'stepping back' , the word which literally means ' stepping together' is
-congress

Bataan Death March, Watergate Scandal, Bubonic Plague
-history

The word is terracide. It is not committed with guns and knives, but with relentless bulldozers, roaring dump trucks, and giant shovels like mythological beasts. Dynamite cuts and rips apart mountains to reach the minerals inside, leaving nothing but empty, naked hills. The land is left wasted and allowed to slide down upon houses and into streams, making the land unlivable and the stream water undrinkable. This is terracide, or if you prefer, strip mining.
What is the author's purpose?
-inform you of the dangers of terracide.

Tofu is a product that is becoming very popular as a low-calorie, cholesterol-free meat substitute. Formerly it was found exclusively in Oriental markets and health food stores, but today tofu can be purchased in most supermarket produce departments. This white, cheese like substance is made from the condensed milk of soybeans. It is extremely high in protein and low in sodium. Tofu is almost tasteless by itself, but it can be easily mixed into sauces and soups; it can even be made to imitate scrambled eggs.
What is the author's primary purpose?
-inform the readers about a low calorie diet

Our criminal justice system today is a disgrace. Modern day criminals have more rights than an honest citizen ever imagined were written into our U.S. Constitution. Murderers and rapists are typically set free on legal technicalities and seldom face any jail time. While that scum is back to work finding new victims, the pleas of those they have killed, maimed, or violated go unheard. Until we begin giving some real consideration to people who obey the law, instead of those who break it, things are going to continue getting worse.
What is the author’s perspective about his subject?
-disapproving

vaccination, serum, carbohydrates
-health

Our criminal justice system today is a disgrace. Modern day criminals have more rights than an honest citizen ever imagined were written into our U.S. Constitution. Murderers and rapists are typically set free on legal technicalities and seldom face any jail time. While that scum is back to work finding new victims, the pleas of those they have killed, maimed, or violated go unheard. Until we begin giving some real consideration to people who obey the law, instead of those who break it, things are going to continue getting worse.
How did the author express his/her disapproval of the criminal justice system in America?
- by comparing the plight of the victims and the freedom of the criminals

This is Philippine literature at its finest. For a millennium, it has been very much alive, shaping current events, influencing prevalent ideologies and societal dictates, fueling our patriotism, promoting a sense of greater good and bestowing hopes and aspirations that this nation could inscribe in the chronicle of its soul.
What is the purpose of the speaker in the passage?
-to inform the readers about the contribution of Philippine literature to our country.

To make a delicious New England pie, proceed as follows: take some water and flour; then construct a bullet-proof dough. Make this into a disk-shaped object. Dry it for a couple of days in a mild temperature. Pour on stewed dried apples and slabs of citron; leave it in a safe place until it petrifies. Serve cold at breakfast and invite your mother-in-law.
What is the author's purpose?
-entertain of (satirize) New England cooking.

A narrative text tells a story and usually follows a familiar structure. It can be in the form of reporting of factual events, or the retelling of a tale from oral tradition. It is often written in informal, everyday English.
-true

(Write Informal English or Academic English): In August, Henry and Henry's big dog Mudge always went camping. They went with Henry's parents. Henry's mother had been a Camp Fire Girl, so she knew all about camping. She knew how to set up a tent. She knew how to build a campfire. She knew how to cook camp food.
- Informal English

"In resenting progress and change, a man lays himself open to censure."  (E.B. White, "Progress and Change")
-criticism, expression of disapproval

Therefore
- Result

The purpose of the psychiatrist is to mitigate the suffering of the patient.
-make milder

However
-Contrast

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
Question: What transition signals are used to indicate chronological events?
-in starting/then

This is a group of sentences dealing with one single idea.
- paragraph

After spending three weeks in the hospital, I had a surfeit of daytime TV programming.   
-excessive

It is difficult to imagine a surfeit of talent in one individual, yet Leonard Bernstein simply does not have the time to make complete use of his talent as conductor, performer, writer, and lecturer.
-excess

If 'gyne' is a Greek word for woman, then a woman hater is a _______________
-misogynist

(Write Informal English or Academic English): They laid into the government for failing to allocate enough funding.
-Informal English

The prisoners liberated from the Nazi death camp were so emaciated that they looked like skeletons.   
-very thin

After the Romans left, a millennium and a half passed before people again lived in such comfort. Churchill wrote, “From the year 400 until the year 1900 no one had central heating and very few had hot baths.”
-1000 years

The Greek word 'gamos' means 'marriage'. A person who hates marriage is called a _________________.
-misogamist

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
In paragraph 2, what transition signal is used to explain how the Germanic language influenced the English language?
-for example

This is where primary argument is presented first followed by reasons and supporting details to prove his or her argument.
-thesis structure

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
What is the topic sentence in paragraph 3?
- Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue

Such are the vicissitudes of history. Nothing remains the same. Three hundred years of peace ended in darkness and confusion.
-changes

There is no doubt that the idea of living in such a benign climate was appealing. The islanders seemed to keep their vitality and live longer than Europeans.
-favorable

The job candidate’s background was impeccable – good references and many years of experience, but the company did not give her  the job.    
- no error

"Roger was thankful for the clothes he had chosen to wear today, because if there was ever a time he needed sartorial armor, it was right now."  (Tom Wolfe, A Man in Full)
-related to clothing or style of dress

Likewise
-Comparison

A gasoline is ______________, or easily burned.
- flammable

A plant that gets food from the air but grows upon another plant is called an ____________________
- epiphyte

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
What is the best sequence of the two tribal invasions of Great Britain that made an influence on English language?
- The Angles and the Saxons-> The Normans

Second
-Sequence

'Anthrop' is a Latin word for a human being. One who hates people is a ____________
-misanthropy

Consequently
- Result

There is a large demand all over the United States for plants indigenous to the desert. 
- native

The Russians are skillful at sending cryptic messages, open to many interpretations. Our State Department spends days puzzling over  their meanings.
- hidden meaning

The tranquilized grizzly bear was lethargic enough for the scientists to safely examine his teeth and tattoo his ears.     
-sleepy

Bob decided to be prudent and call ahead for reservations, instead of just showing up. 
-careful judgment

The period of time between happenings or events is called the time ___________________

(Write Informal English or Academic English): Marcia is unpredictable.
- Academic English

Grammatically independent in unit.
- sentence

My brother said, “I just freed myself from a very loquacious history professor. All he seemed to want was an audience.”
-talkative

(Write Informal English or Academic English): Hippopotamuses are the third heaviest kind of land mammal in the world. They weigh in right after elephants and rhinos.
-Academic English

Accordingly
-Sequence

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
 What structure of text is used in the passage?
-thesis structure

It is emphasized in a topic sentence.
- main ideas

The outer layer of a skin is called ____________________
- epidermis

An __________________ agreement is one that is made between or among nations of the world.
- international

We knew he couldn’t hold out much longer, because he had been doomed from the beginning. One night he met his ineluctable fate.
- inevitable

The students who arrived late told the teacher an implausible story about stopping to watch a UFO.
-non-believable

This is Philippine literature at its finest. For a millennium, it has been very much alive, shaping current events, influencing prevalent ideologies and societal dictates, fueling our patriotism, promoting a sense of greater good and bestowing hopes and aspirations that this nation could inscribe in the chronicle of its soul.
What is the author’s view about the subject?
-proud

Another term for main idea of the passage.
-thesis statement

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
What paragraph wraps up or restates the main idea of the essay?
-paragraph 5

If someone's writing is not readable, we would call it ___________
- illegible

For instance
-Example/Illustration

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
What word suggests the time sequence used in the essay?
-chronological

This refers to the correct presentation of facts and evidences in writing a passage.
-accuracy

Moreover
-Addition

A hatred for men is called _____________________
-misandry

A combination of fog and industrial smoke, called smog, has vitiated the air in and around many big cities.
-spoil

If ' miso' means to hate, then misoneism mean _____________ of new things.
-hatred

If a person breaks between us in a conversation, we say that he/ she __________________
-interrupts

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
In vocabulary learning , ‘Conquarrer’ and ‘porc’ are examples of?
-structural analysis

Their vociferous chatter made me wish I had earplugs.
- loud

The Great Flood of Noah’s day was caused by incessant rain that fell for 40 days and nights.   
-non-stop

In ancient times, it was very important to build castles with ______________ forts.
- impregnable

It restates the main argument in the introductory part but using other words.
- conclusion

(Write Informal English or Academic English):
Report shows Oregon doing well on "highly qualified" teacher requirements
EUGENE, Ore. (AP) -- More than 80 percent of Oregon students last spring were being taught by teachers who meet the federal government's new definition of "highly qualified," according to a new report by the Oregon Department of Education.

(Write Informal English or Academic English): Now Dragon could not fit into his car," Oh! What am I going to do?" cried Dragon.
-Informal English

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
What kind of reading strategy used in finding the answer for number 7?
-scanning

A witty statement upon some matter is an ________________
- epigram

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
 Which statement is true based on the definition from the passage?
-all of the choices

His lucid lectures, along with his clearly presented explanations, made him a popular professor.   

A hatred for argument is _______________
-misologye

Many years before, Caesar’s men had tried and failed to invade Britain. No doubt this contributed to the xenophobia of the Romans. They were cautious about strangers who entered their country.
-fear of foreigners 

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
 What is the main idea of the essay?
-The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.

He was so impudent to his mother that I would have punished him if he talked to me that way.     
-rude

An important part in a passage that provides evidences to the thesis statement or main argument.
- supporting details

Origins of the English Language
1) In starting our study of the English language, we must know something about its beginnings or origins. The English language has its beginnings in many other languages that go far back into ancient times.
2) We must start our study as far back as the invasion of two German tribes, the Angles and the Saxons, into Great Britain. This invasion occurred about four hundred years after the birth of Christ. These barbaric tribes overran the island of Great Britain and introduced a new way of life. They also introduced new words into the language that later became the English we speak and write today. From their Germanic gods, for example, come the days of the week: Tui, the god of war (Tuesday); Woden, father of the gods (Wednesday); Thor, god of Thunder (Thursday).
3) Then we must comprehend or understand how the invasion of the Normans into Great Britain- known as the land of the Angles, or England – also changed our mother tongue. The Normans were from France. In 1066 they conquered the Angles and the Saxons and made them slaves. The old English spoken by the Angles and Saxons survived; however, some French words were added. These new words helped to make our language richer. From these early Frenchmen, for example, the word porc means “pig”. Today, we use the word pork, however, only when we speak of the flesh of a pig. This is because the early French Normans, as the masters of England, saw the animal only when it was cooked and served to them on the dinner table. The Angle and Saxon slaves, however, who tended the animal while it was alive, called it pig. So even now the flesh of this particular animal when eaten is pork, but the animal itself is known as a pig.
4) And, in turn, we must understand or comprehend how the French language brought to England by the Norman conquerors had its roots in the ancient languages of Greece and Rome. Many of the words borrowed from the Normans at this time, for example showed the relationship of a ruling class to its subjects. Most of these words can be traced all the way back to Latin. The word conqueror itself comes from the old French word conquerre which, in turn, comes from the Latin word conquarere, which simply means “to win”.
5) Only by a brief study of these chronological events and their influences can we comprehend why the English language we speak today is so rich in meaning.
What transition signal is used in paragraph 3?
- then

(Write Informal English or Academic English): She's a bit of a loose cannon
-Informal English

Visiting my students’ places is like walking along a labyrinth of houses with very narrow and winding streets.
-a maze, a place where it's hard to find your way around

This is where the main point the author wants to emphasize in a paragraph is found.
- topic sentence

(Write Informal English or Academic English): They criticized the government for failing to allocate enough funding.
-Academic English

First
-Sequence

This is where the author discusses the central idea and how the discussion will be organized.
-introduction

(Write Informal English or Academic English): Off to Zamboanga today. Lots to visit there.
-Informal English

Furthermore
- Addition

The ambiguity of Joe’s directions made it almost impossible to find his house.
-no clear meaning

(Write Informal English or Academic English): We went to Subic for the weekend. We have a lot of things to tell you.
-Academic English

The speaker or writer starts by presenting an argument either explicit or implicit before arriving at a conclusion.
-subjective

A word is formed from the initial letters or syllables.
-Acronymy

Unity of all sentences in a paragraph.
-cohesion

Supports main arguments with contributions from literary authorities and references.
- Proofs/ evidences

The process of forming a word from two words or parts of two words being combined.
- Blending

Caesarean is an example of -
- Folk Or Popular Etymology

twirl comes from the word --
-turn and swirl

A shortened form of a word.
- clipping

lab comes from the word -
-Laboratory

The word undergoes changes in meaning to make it more like a familiar word.
-Blending

It is presenting the ideas and sentences in a logical way.
- coherence

A word combination of two or three words put together to form a new word with a meaning different from its parts.
- Clipping

A scientific type of argumentative text based on a given data from bibliographic references of relevant authors.
-objective

Is defined as justifying an opinion or thesis through reasoning with the aim of changing the views of other person.
-Argumentation

Tigon is an example of --
- Blending

Is presented in the thesis statement.
- Proposition

LASER stands for --
- Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

A type of discourse concerned with presentation and evaluation of arguments to persuade and convince the audience.
-Argumentative Text

Aimed to refute the arguments or ideas against the main thesis to be developed.
- negative argument

A word is cut either at the beginning or at the end.
- Clipping

It involves exposition, explanation, definition or interpretation of a given issue.
-objective

The speaker or writer desire to communicate certain ideas to provoke the audience.
- subjective

Aimed to reinforce the truth of the thesis based on relevant authors, personal experience or analogy.
- positive argument

Opposite thoughts other side of the issue of the argument are presented.
-Refutation

A type of argumentative text found in research documents experiments and field reports
- objective